terrorism, counter-terrorism

Sponsored by Project on Defense Alternatives            Editor: Carl Conetta.            05 February 2008


TERRORISM & COUNTER-TERRORISM Terrorism, its nature and sources
Terrorist groups, incidents, targets
Financial Aspects
Bin Laden and Al Qaeda
Counter-terror strategy & programs
US War on Terror:
     Plans, Costs, Effects

Legal Issues & Human Rights
Terrorism & WMDs
Terrorism & Informational Warfare
Terrorism &
     regional security issues

Sept. 11 attack
Resource sites

Organization & cost
Armed forces roles and issues
Intelligence and warning
General Transport
Rail & Road
Port & Maritime
Border & Immigration
Critical infrastructure
Cyber security
First responders &
     local preparedness

Health system preparedness
Securing agriculture
Miscellaneous problems & Issues
Technology & techniques
Legislation & legal issues
WMDs and homeland security
Resource sites







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Radiological Events in the Homeland
James B. Brown, Russell E. Coble and Emery J. Chase. Joint Force Quarterly, First Quarter 2008 (.pdf file).

Securing U.S. Nuclear Material: DOE Has Made Little Progress Consolidating and Disposing of Special Nuclear Material
Government Accountability Report, October 2007 (.pdf file).

Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Additional Actions Needed to Ensure Adequate Testing of Next Generation Radiation Detection Equipment
Gene Aloise and Keith Rhodes. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 18 September 2007 (.pdf file).

Securing the Bomb 2007
Matthew Bunn. Commissioned by the Nuclear Threat Initiative, September 2007 (.pdf file).

The Day After: Action Following a Nuclear Blast in a U.S. City
Ashton B. Carter, Michael M. May and William J. Perry. The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2007 (.pdf file).

Countering Bio-Threats: EU Instruments for Managing Biological Materials, Technology and Knowledge
Frida Kuhlau. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, August 2007 (.pdf file).

Countering Bio-Threats: EU Instruments for Managing Bio Materials, Technology and Knowledge
Frida Kuhlau. SIPRI Policy Paper #19. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, August 2007 (.pdf file).

Detecting Smuggled Nuclear Weapons
Testimonies before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology & Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 27 July 2006.

Responding in the Homeland: A Snapshot of NATO's Readiness for CBRN Attacks
Michael Moodie, Robert E. Armstrong and Tyler Merkeley. Defense Horizons, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, June 2007 (.pdf file).

Reducing Vulnerabilities to Weapons of Mass Destruction
Defense Science Board 2005 Summer Study, Department of Defense, May 2007 (.pdf file).

Thoughts on the Day After
Michael M. May. Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, 06 April 2007 (.pdf file).

Countering the Nuclear Threat to the Homeland: Evaluating the Procurement of Radiation Detection Technologies
Testimonies before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity and Science and Technology, House Committee on Homeland Security, 14 March 2007.

The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center: Issues for Congress
Dana A. Shea. Congressional Research Service, updated 15 February 2007 (.pdf file).

Enforcing International Standards: Protecting Nuclear Materials from Terrorists Post-9/11
George Bunn. Arms Control Today, Arms Control Association, January/February 2007.

National Nuclear Security Administration: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management of the Nation's Nuclear Programs
Report to the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, House Committee on Armed Services. Government Accountability Office, January 2007 (.pdf file).

Radiological Terrorism: Public Response and the Search for Resilience
Preliminary Findings and Recommendations of the NATO-Russia Advanced Research Workshop "Social and Psychological Effects of Radiological Terrorism," Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 29 November 2006. Posted on the University of Georgia website (.pdf file).

Combating Nuclear Terrorism: Federal Efforts to Respond to Nuclear and Radiological Threats and to Protect Emergency Response Capabilities Could be Strengthened
Report to the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations, House Committee on Government Reform. Government Accountability Office, September 2006 (.pdf file).

The Global Forum on Preventing Bio-Terrorism - Heeding the Call
Barry Kellman. Journal of Homeland Security, August 2006.

Security-Conscious Workforce as the First Line of Defense against Catastrophic Terrorism
Igor Khripunov. Strengthening the Global Partnership, April 2006 (.pdf file).

Principles for Congressional Action on Chemical Security
James Jay Carafano. The Heritage Foundation, 31 March 2006.

Neutralizing The Nuclear And Radiological Threat: Securing the Global Supply Chain (Part II)
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 30 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Neutralizing The Nuclear And Radiological Threat: Securing the Global Supply Chain (Part I)
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate , 28 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Challenges Facing U.S. Efforts to Deploy Radiation Detection Equipment in Other Countries and in the United States
Gene Aloise. Testimony before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 28 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Statement of Richard A. Falkenrath
Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, U.S. Senate, 16 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Preventing Catastrophic Nuclear Terorrism
Charles D. Ferguson. Council on Foreign Relations, March 2006 (.pdf file).

Combating Nuclear Smuggling: DHS Has Made Progress Deploying Radiation Detection Equipment at U.S. Ports-of-Entry, but Concerns Remain
Government Accountability Office, March 2006 (.pdf file).

Homeland Security: DHS Is Taking Steps to Enhance Security at Chemical Facilities, but Additional Authority Is Needed
Government Accountability Office, January 2006 (.pdf file).

Bioterrorism - Preparing to Fight the Next War
David A. Relman. New England Journal of Medicine, 12 January 2006 (.pdf file).

Moving Forward to Secure America At Home
Ch. 19 of The Forgotten Homeland, a Century Foundation report, 2006 (.pdf file).

Federal Funding for Biological Weapons Prevention and Defense: Fiscal Year 2001 to 2007
Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, 2006 (.pdf file).

Analysis of Department of Defense Plans and Response to Three Potential Anthrax Incidents in March 2005
Terrence K. Kelly et al. RAND, 2006 (.pdf file).

Biosecurity and Biodefense Resource
Federation of American Scientists, 2006.

Biosecurity and Secrecy Policy: Problems, Theory, and a Call for Executive Action
Brian J. Gorman. I/S, A Journal of Law and Policy, 2006 (.pdf file).

Solutions in the Public Interest
Innovations. MIT Press, Winter 2006 (.pdf file).

Biological Terrorism Dangers Overstated, Expert Says
David Ruppe. Global Security Newswire, 07 December 2005. Posted on the Nuclear Threat Initiative website.

Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Prototype Protective Oversight System
John Steinbruner et al. Center for International and Security Studies, University of Maryland, December 2005 (.pdf file).

Terrorism Preparedness Two Years After the Bioterrorism Preparedness Acountability Indicators Project
Meredith Gaskins et al. Journal of Homeland Security, December 2005.

Plugging the Gaps in Biodefense
Jonathan Moreno, Jonas Singer and Sam Berger. Center for American Progress, 26 October 2005.

Combating Catastrophic Terror: A Security Strategy for the Nation
American Progress Action Fund, October 2005 (.pdf file).

Terrorist Threat to U.S. Chemical Facilities Can Be Lowered, Not Eliminated, Officials Say
Chris Schneidmiller. Global Security Newswire, 7 September 2005.

Analyzing a Bioterror Attack on the Food Supply: The Case of Botulinum Toxin in Milk
Lawrence M Wein and Yifan Liu. PNAS, 12 July 2005 (.pdf file).

Biodefense: A Plague of Researchers
Nick Schwellenbach. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2005.

U.S. Nuclear Weapons Complex: Homeland Security Opportunities
Project on Government Oversight, May 2005.

Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism
Donna M. Edwards et al. Sandia National Laboratories, May 2005 (.pdf file).

Management of First Responder Grant Programs and Efforts to Improve Accountability Conti
William O. Jenkins, Jr. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology, Committee on Homeland Security, U.S. House of Representatives, 12 April 2005 (.pdf file).

The Question of Bioterrorism Preparedness
Stephen Gale and Gregory Montanaro. Foreign Policy Research Institute, 31 March 2005.

U.S. Chemical Demilitarization Stalls
Michael Nguyen. Arms Control Today, March 2005.

Terrorist Nuclear Attacks on Seaport: Threat and Response
Jonathan Medalia. CRS Report for Congress, 24 January 2005 (.pdf file).

Breathing Easier?
Leif Wellington Haase. Century Foundation, 13 January 2005 (.pdf file).

Sensor Systems for Biological Agent Attacks: Protecting Buildings and Military Bases
National Academies Press, 2005.

Protection, Control, and Accounting of Nuclear Materials: International Challenges and National Programs -- Workshop Summary
National Academies Press, 2005.

Reopening Public Facilities After a Biological Attack: A Decision-Making Framework
National Academies Press, 2005.

Monitoring Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear-Explosive Materials: An Assessment of Methods and Capabilities
Committee on International Security and Arms Control, National Research Council, 2005.

Terrorism: Background on Chemical, Biological, and Toxin Weapons and Options for Lessening Their Impact
Dana A. Shea. CRS Report for Congress, 01 December 2004. Posted on the Federation of American Scientists website (.pdf file).

Looking for Trouble: A Policymaker's Guide to Biosensing
Robert Armstrong, et al. Center for Technology & National Security Policy, NDU, June 2004 (.pdf file).

HHS Bioterrorism Preparedness Programs:  States Reported Progress but Fell Short of Program Goals for 2002
General Accounting Office, 10 February 2004.

New Germ Labs Stir Debate Over Secrecy and Safety
Judith Miller. New York Times, 10 February 2004 (Free registration).

Coping with an Attack: a Quick Guide to Dealing with Biological, Chemical, and "Dirty Bomb" Attacks
Patricia Coomber and Robert Armstrong. Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, February 2004.

Weapons of Mass Destruction Are Overrated as a Threat to America
Ivan Eland. Independent Institute, 28 January 2004.

Dealing with Dirty Bombs:  Plain Facts, Practical Solutions
James Jay Carafano and Jack Spencer. Backgrounder #1723. Heritage Foundation, 27 January 2004.

Everything in Hyped
Charley Reese, 23 January 2004. Posted on the Lew Rockwell website.

Syndromic Surveillance:  An Effective Tool for Detecting Bioterrorism?
RAND Research Highlights, 2004 (.pdf file).

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism
National Academies Press, 2004.

Dirty Bombs:  The Threat Revisited
Peter D. Zimmerman with Cheryl Loeb. Defense Horizons, January 2004. Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University.

Uncertain Threat:  Does smallpox really spread that easily?
Gunjan Sinha. Scientific American, 15 December 2003.

Bioterror Hysteria:  The New "Star Wars"
Alan Goldstein. Salon.com, 09 December 2003.

Improving Federal Response to Catastrophic Bioterrorist Attacks:  The Next Steps
James Jay Carafano. Backgrounder #1705. Heritage Foundation, 13 November 2003.

US crackdown on bioterror is backfiring
New Scientist, 5 November 2003.

Project Vinca:  Lessons for Securing Civil Nuclear Material Stockpiles
Philipp Bleek. Nonproliferation Review, Fall/Winter 2003.

Implications for Public Policy of the Threat from Bioterrorism
Graham Allison. Discussion Paper, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, November 2003.

Home Grown Proliferation:  Testimony Reveals Serious Weaknesses in Pentagon Control Over Equipment Needed for Biological Weapons Laboratory
Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, 7 October 2003.

Bioterror Brain Drain
Merrill Goozner. American Prospect, 01 October 2003.

Securing U.S. Radioactive Sources
Issues in Science and Technology, Fall 2003.

Bioterrorism:  Public Health Response to Anthrax Incidents of 2001
General Accounting Office, October 2003.

Potential Strange Bedfollows? Homeland Security And Non-Proliferation In The Post 9-11 World
Stephen E. Flynn. Monitor:  International Perspectives on Nonproliferation, 18 September 2003.

Smallpox and Bioterrorism:  Why the Plan to Protect the Nation Is Stalled and What to Do
William J. Bicknell MD and Kenneth D. Bloem. Cato Institute Briefing Papers #85, 5 September 2003.

Bioterrorism Threat Assessment and Risk Management Workshop:  Final Report and Commentary
Raymond Zilinskas. Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 24 June 2003.

Responding to Biological Terrorist Incidents:  Upgrading the FEMA Approach
Glenn Fiedelholtz. Journal of Homeland Security, May 2003.

Nuclear Security:  NNSA Needs to Better Manage Its Safeguards and Security Program
General Accounting Office, May 2003.

Project BioShield
Frank Gottron. Congressional Research Service, 28 April 2003.

Infectious Disease Outbreaks:  Bioterrorism Preparedness Efforts Have Improved Public Health Response Capacity, but Gaps Remain
Janet Heinrich. Testimony before the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. General Accounting Office, 9 April 2003.

Toward a National Biodefense Strategy:  Challenges and Opportunities
Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, April 2003.

The Looming Biological Warfare Storm:  Misconceptions and Probable Scenarios
Col (Dr.) Jim A. Davis. Air & Space Power Journal, Spring 2003.

Bioterrorism:  Preparedness Varied across State and Local Jurisdictions
General Accounting Office, April 2003.

Preparedness for Chemical and Biological Threats to Homeland Security:  A Glass Half Empty; a Glass Half Full
Michael Moodie. Paper presented at a conference, "Progress Towards Homeland Security: An Interim Report Card", sponsored by the Lexington Institute, 27 February 2003.

Chemical and Biological Warfare:  A Manageable Problem
Brian P. Donahoo. Joint Military Operations Department, 27 January 2003. Hosted by STINET database (.pdf file).

Back to Bioweapons?
Mark Wheelis & Malcolm Dando. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 2003.

The Anthrax Attacks
Patricia Thomas. Homeland Security Project, Working Group on the Public's Need to Know. Century Foundation, 2003.

Progress and Peril Bioterrorism Preparedness Dollars and Public Health
Elin Gursky. Homeland Security Project. Century Foundation, 2003.

Dreaded Risks and the Control of Biological Weapons
Jessica Stern. International Security, Winter 2002/03.

Container Security:  Current Efforts to Detect Nuclear Materials, New Initiatives, and Challenges
Jay Etta Z. Hecker. Statement before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations, House Committee on Government Reform. General Accounting Office, 18 November 2002.

Anthrax In America:  A Chronology and Analysis of the Fall 2001 Attacks
Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, November 2002.

Al Qaeda's Nuclear Program: Through the Window of Seized Documents
David Albright. Policy Forum Online, Special Forum #47. The Nautilus Institute, 6 November 2002.

Preventing Nuclear Terrorism: 15 Recommendations
Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation, 8 October 2002.

The Bug Net
Shane Harris. Government Executive Magazine, 1 October 2002.

Keeping Nuclear Weapons Out of Terrorist Hands
Philipp C. Bleek. Global Beat Syndicate, 1 October 2002.

Statement of Rose Gottemoeller
Rose Gottemoeller. Testimony before the House Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations Committee on Government Reform, 24 September 2002.

Preventing Nuclear Terrorism
Matthew Bunn. Testimony before the US House Government Reform Committee, Subcommittee on National Security, 24 September 2002. Posted on the KSG, Harvard University website.

Defense Official Says Attack Unlikely
George Cahlink. Government Executive, 23 August 2002.

Terrorist Nuclear Attacks on Seaports:  Threat and Response
Jonathan Medalia. Congressional Research Service, 23 August 2002.

Chemical and Biological Weapons:Prospects and Priorities After September 11
Elisa D. Harris. The Brookings Review, Summer 2002.

Throw the Net Worldwide
Ashton B. Carter. The Washington Post, 12 June 2002. Posted on BCSIA, JFK School of Government, Harvard website.

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: The Threat According to the Current Unclassified Literature
Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, 31 May 2002.

After 9/11: Preventing Mass Destruction Terrorism and Weapons Proliferation
Michael Barletta. Occasional Paper #8. Center for Nonproliferation Studies, May 2002.

Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help Other Countries Combat Nuclear Smuggling Need Strengthened Coordination and Planning
Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate, U.S. Government Accounting Office, May 2002.

Attacking Anthrax
John A. T. Young and R. John Collier. Scientific American, 24 March 2002.

FAS Testimony on Terrorist Nuclear Threat
Henry Kelly. Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 6 March 2002. Posted on the Federation of American Scientists website.

Bioterrorism: Legislation to Improve Health Preparedness and Response Capacity
C. Stephen Redhead, et al. Congressional Research Service, 31 January 2002.

Reforming Public Health for Bioterrorism
Tara O'Toole. Blueprint Magazine, 16 January 2002. New Democrats Online.

Rapid Field Detection of Biological Agents
Richard Langlois. Science and Technology Review, January/February 2002.

The Anthrax Vaccine: Is It Safe? Does It Work?
Lois M. Joellenbeck, et. al. Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine, Medical Follow-Up Agency, 2002. Posted on the National Academy Press website.

Toxic Warfare
Theodore Karasik. RAND, 2002.

Are Local Health Responders Ready for Chemical and Biological Terrorism?
Lois M. Davis and Janice C. Blanchard. Issue Paper. RAND, 2002.

Measuring and Evaluating Local Preparedness for a Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attack
Ronald D. Fricker, Jr., et. al. Issue Paper. RAND, 2002.

Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities: Workshop Summary
Stacey L. Knobler, et. al. National Academies Press, 2002.

Counterterrorism & the Nonproliferation Regime
The Monitor. Center for International Trade and Security, Winter 2002.

Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities
Stacy L. Knobler, et. al. Forum on Emerging Infections, Board on Global Health, 2002. Posted on the National Academy Press website.

Bioterrorism: Summary of a CRS/National Health Policy Forum Seminar on Federal, State and Local Public Health Preparedness
Robin J. Strongin, et al. Congressional Research Service, 21 December 2001.

Evaluating the Threat: Does Mass Biopanic Portend Mass Destruction?
Ed Regis. Scientific American, 16 December 2001.

Bioweapons: Inside Attacks
Gary Stix. Scientific American, December 2001.

George Washington's Bioterrorism Strategy: How we handled it last time
Garance Franke-Ruta. Washington Monthly, December 2001.

We Must Act As If He Has The Bomb
Graham Allison. The Washington Post, 18 November 2001. Posted on the JFK School of Government, Harvard website.

Bioterrorism: The Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention's Role in Public Health Protection
Janet Heinrich. General Accounting Office, 15 November 2001.

Preparing for Bioterrorism
Peter Ross Range. Blueprint Magazine, 15 November 2001. New Democrats Online.

Ambulances to Nowhere: America's Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism
Joseph A. Barbera, et al. Belfer Center of Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, October 2001.

Biological Warfare and the "Buffy Paradigm"
Anthony H. Cordesman. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 29 September 2001.

Planting Fear: How Real is the Threat of Agricultural Terrorism?
Gavin Cameron, Jason Pate & Kathleen M. Vogel. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, September/October 2001.

A New Vigilance: Identifying and Reducing the Risks of Environmental Terrorism
Elizabeth Chalecki. Pacific Institute, September 2001.

Covert Biological Weapons Attacks against Agricultural Targets: Assessing the Impact against U.S. Agriculture
Jason Pate and Gavin Cameron. BCSIA, JFK School of Government, Harvard, August 2001.

Report on Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research & Development Programs
Department of Defense, July 2001.

Overview of Federal Programs to Enhance State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism with Weapons of Mass Destruction
Gregory D. Koblentz. BCSIA, JFK School of Government, Harvard, April 2001.

U.S. Preparations for Biological Terrorism: Legal Limitations and the Need for Planning
Juliette N. Kayyem. BCSIA, JKF School of Government, Harvard, March 2001.

Bioterrorism and the Use of Fear in Public Health
Edward P. Richards. Medical and Public Health Law Site, Louisana State University School of Law, 2001.

Assessing the Threat
First Annual Report to The President and The Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction, 15 December 2000. Posted on the Medical and Public Health Law Site, Louisiana State University School of Law website.

The Role of Disease Surveillance in the Watch for Agro-terrorism or Economic Sabotage
Dorothy B. Preslar. Federation of American Scientists, November 2000.

Responding to the Threat of Agroterrorism: Specific Recommendations for the United States Department of Agriculture
Anne Kohnen. BCSIA, JFK School of Government, Harvard, October 2000.

Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response
Ali S. Khan, et. al. Recommendations and Reports. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 21 April 2000.

Bioterrorism: Homeland Defense: The Next Steps
Maurice Eisenstein and Brian Houghton. A conference sponsored by RAND, 8-10 February 2000.

HotZone '99: Advanced Technology needs for Consequence Management of Biological Terrorism
Janice M. Grahame, et al. Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 15 October 1999.

The New Terrorism: Does It Exist? How Real are the Risks of Mass Casualty Attacks?
A Conference co-sponsored by Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute and the Center for Global Security Research Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, 29-30 April 1999.

Terrorists, WMD, and the US Army Reserve
Charles L. Mercier, Jr. Parameters, Autumn 1997.

Counterproliferation and Chemical/Biological Defense Program Web Reports
U.S. Department of Defense Office of Counterproliferation and Chemical and Biological Defense.

Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical Biological Defense
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare
Medical NBC Online

Nuclear Terrorism--How to Prevent It
Nuclear Control Institute. Washington, D.C.

General Bioterrorism Information
Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

How to Avoid Nuclear Terrorism Against the U.S.: Preventing "The Blood-Dimmed Tide"
Louis Rene Beres. Strategic Review, Spring 1996.

Gilmore Commission: Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction

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