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Earlier Articles on the Costs of the New Wars for the Armed Forces

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ARCHIVES
1. Field conditions
2. Morale
3. Casualties and health
4. Deployments and rotations
5. Force size and troop levels
6. Force protection
7. Equipment
8. Recruitment and retention
9. Community and families
10. Stability operations
11. Military reform and restructure
12. Overviews

7. Equipment

Iraq Drains Resources from U.S. Pacific Command
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 28 February 2008.

Mass. Guard Lacks Vital Resources
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 01 February 2008.

New Stryker Faring Poorly in Field
Christian Lowe. Military.com, 30 January 2008.

Army Helmets to Gather Data on Blast Impact
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 03 January 2008.

Military Thinks Twice on Fortified Trucks
Julian E. Barnes and Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 27 December 2007.

U.S. Marines' MV-22 Osprey Test: Combat
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 07 December 2007.

U.S. Military Fumbles Requests for Nonlethal Weapons in Iraq, Afghanistan
David Axe. World Politics Review, 20 November 2007.

Report: Army Needs More Contracting Personnel to Meet Combat Supply Demands
The Associated Press, 01 November 2007.

Doubts About a New Armored Vehicle
Mark Thompson. TIME Magazine, 22 October 2007.

When the Military Needs It Yesterday
G. Pascal Zachary. The New York Times, 21 October 2007.

Marines Urge Caution on MRAP Fielding
Christian Lowe. Military.com, 19 October 2007.

Will MRAPs Become White Elephants?
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 19 October 2007.

Osprey Finally Arrives in a Combat Zone, After More Repairs
Jay Price. McClatchy Newspapers, 08 October 2007.

Army and Marine Corps Cannot Be Assured That Equipment Reset Strategies Will Sustain Equipment Availability While Meeting Ongoing Operational Requirements
Government Accountability Office, September 2007 (.pdf file).

Defense Department Sticks With M-16s Despite Problems
PBS Newshour, 24 September 2007.

Controversial Osprey Aircraft Deployed to Iraq
Dave Montgomery. McClatchy Newspapers, 20 September 2007.

A Stock Caught in the Iraq Debate
Nelson D. Schwartz. The New York Times, 16 September 2007.

Replacing and Repairing Equipment Used in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Army's Reset Program
Congressional Budget Office, 13 September 2007 (.pdf file).

Army to Begin Testing Lightweight Humvees
The Associated Press, 11 September 2007.

Pentagon Junking Millions in Gear
The Associated Press, 23 July 2007. Posted on Military.com.

Equipment Levels Worst Ever, Guard Chief Says
James Halpin. The Associated Press, 06 June 2007.

Urgent Needs Needed Urgently
Christian Lowe. Defense Tech, 01 June 2007.

Army Report Backs Upgrades in Combat Medical Units
Bob Brewin. Government Executive Magazine, 31 May 2007.

Marines Fail to Get Gear to Troops
Richard Lardner. The Associated Press, 25 May 2007. Posted on Military.com.

Equipment Readiness in Iraq
Lt. Jimmie Mister, Jr. School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 24 May 2007 (.pdf file).

Guards Plagued by Shortages of Equipment
Nancy A. Youssef. McClatchy Newspapers, 08 May 2007.

Army Acquisition 'System' Crushes Another Program
Loren B. Thompson. Lexington Institute, 18 April 2007.

The Move From Hell
Dan Ephron. Newsweek, 23 April 2007. Posted on 16 April 2007.

Combat, With Limits, Looms for Hybrid Aircraft
Wilmington Star News Online, 16 April 2007.

Guard Needs to Replace Abandoned Equipment
The Associated Press, 02 April 2007.

General Says U.S. Army Has Lost 130 Helicopters in Iraq and Afghanistan
The Associated Press, 23 March 2007.

Military Equipment Takes a Beating in Iraq
Adam Hochberg. NPR, 01 March 2007.

Problems Stall Pentagon's New Fighting Vehicle
Renae Merle. Washington Post, 07 February 2007.

Army: Surging Soldiers Will Be Fully Equipped
Matthew Cox. Army Times, 31 January 2007.

Defense Logistics: Preliminary Observations on the Army's Implementation of its Equipment Reset Strategies
William M. Solis. Testimony before the Subcommittees on Readiness and Air and Land Forces, House Committee on Armed Services, 31 January 2007 (.pdf file).

GAO: Guard May Lack Gear Needed for Domestic Crises
Megan Scully. CongressDaily, 30 January 2007.

Equipment For Added Troops Is Lacking
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 30 January 2007.

Military Short of Armored Vehicles in Iraq
David Wood. Baltimore Sun, 22 January 2007.

Pentagon to Request Billions More in War Money
David S. Cloud. The New York Times, 30 December 2006.

Business Booming for Contractors Rebuilding Iraq Equipment
Daniel Lovering. The Associated Press, 28 December 2006.

U.S. Army and Marine Corps Equipment Requirements: Background and Issues for Congress
Andrew Feickert. Congressional Research Service, 20 December 2006 (.pdf file).

Broken Army, Broken Empire
Pat Buchanan. Antiwar.com, 20 December 2006.

U.S. Air Force Loses Out in Iraq War
Richard Whittle. The Christian Science Monitor, 19 December 2006.

Ensuring a Military Recovery from Iraq
Center for American Progress, 18 December 2006.

A Christmas List for America's Army
Loren B. Thompson. Lexington Institute, 05 December 2006.

U.S. Army Battling To Save Equipment
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 05 December 2006.

Controversy over Pentagon's War-Spending Plan
Julian E. Barnes and Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 29 November 2006.

Wars Wearing Down Military Gear at Cost of About $2 Billion a Month
Matt Kelley. USA Today, 29 November 2006.

Time to Fix What's Broken
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 20 November 2006.

Equipping the Army National Guard for the 21st Century
Mackenzie Eaglen. The Heritage Foundation, 13 November 2006.

Hollow Military 2.0
Gary J. Schmitt. Front Page Magazine, 06 November 2006.

Ground Truth
Interview with Gen. Peter Schoomaker. Government Executive Magazine, 15 September 2006. Posted on 17 October 2006.

War Takes Big Toll on Humvees
James Janega. Chicago Tribune, 09 October 2006.

After 5 Years of War, U.S. Military Shows Fatigue
Will Dunham. Reuters, 05 October 2006.

Reserve Forces: Army National Guard and Army Reserve Readiness for 21st Century Challenges
Janet A. St. Laurent. Testimony before the Commission on the National Guard and Reserves, 21 September 2006 (.pdf file).

United States Army Military Readiness
John Murtha and Dave Obey, 13 September 2006.

Marine Corps Equipment After Iraq
Lawrence J. Korb, Max A. Bergmann and Loren B. Thompson. Center for American Progress and the Lexington Institute, 23 August 2006 (.pdf file).

Marine Corps Stretched Thin by Wars in Iraq, Afghanistan
Drew Brown. McClatchy Newspapers, 22 August 2006. (See report above).

Guard Needs More Equipment
Pamela Hess. United Press International, 21 August 2006.

Iraq or Bust
Charles V. Pena. TaylorMarsh.com, 16 August 2006.

Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom
Eric Peltz et al. RAND, 2006 (.pdf file).

Senate Adds Money to Fix, Replace War-Worn Equipment
Rick Maze. Army Times, 02 August 2006.

General: Guard Units Not Combat Ready
The Associated Press, 01 August 2006. Posted on the USA Today website.

Military Equipment Woes Prompt Call for Larger Bridge Fund
Megan Scully. Congress Daily, 27 July 2006. Posted on GovExec.com.

Funding Shortfalls Jeopardize Army Operations, Chief Says
Katherine McIntire Peters. Government Executive Magazine, 17 July 2006.

Pentagon Struggles With Cost Overruns and Delays
Leslie Wayne. The New York Times, 11 July 2006.

House Memo: Army Unit Readiness For Iraq, Afghanistan Is Lagging
Elaine M. Grossman. Inside the Pentagon, 06 July 2006.

Army Equipment Costs Triple Due to Iraq, Afghanistan Wars
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 26 June 2006.

Army Equipment After Iraq
Lawrence J. Korb, Loren B. Thompson and Caroline P. Wadhams. Center for American Progress, 25 April 2006 (.pdf file).

U.S. Army Delays RPG Defense
Greg Grant. Defense News, 24 April 2006. Posted on the Commonwealth website (.pdf file).

Unforeseen Spending on Materiel Pumps Up Iraq War Bill
Jonathan Weisman. Washington Post, 20 April 2006.

Defense Logistics: Preliminary Observations on Equipment Reset Challenges and Issues for the Army and Marine Corps
William M. Solis. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Readiness and Tactical Air and Land Forces, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, 30 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Iraq War Drains Guard of Equipment
Atlanta Journal Constitution, 08 March 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Pentagon Hopes to Replace Lost Aircraft
Graham Warwick. Flight International, 07 March 2006.

Military Vehicles, and Lives, Take a Beating in Iraq
Joe Galloway. Salt Lake Tribune, 15 February 2006.

Army Needs $1.2b for Chopper Replacement
Pamela Hess. United Press International, 12 January 2006.

Rhetoric Versus Reality
Winslow Wheeler. Military.com, 05 January 2006.

Testing Community Strained by Need To Rush Equipment into Theater
Jen DiMascio. Inside the Army, 28 November 2005.

U.S. Reports JDAMS Shortage in Iraq
United Press International, 28 November 2005. Posted on the Science Daily website.

National Guard is Short on Gear
Philip Dine. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 03 November 2005.

Army Holds Back New Humvees
Scripps Howard News Service, 23 October 2005.

Military Readiness: DoD Needs to Identify and Address Gaps and Potential Risks in Program Strategies and Funding Priorities For Selected Equipment
GAO Report to Congressional Committees. October 2005.

Resetting the Force: The Equipment Challenge
Torchbearer National Security Report. AUSA, October 2005 (.pdf file).

Safer Vehicles for Soldiers: A Tale of Delays and Glitches
Michael Moss. New York Times, 26 June 2005.

Marine Units Found to Lack Equipment
Bryan Bender. Boston Globe, 21 June 2005.

The Potential Costs Resulting from Increased Usage of Military Equipment in Ongoing Operations
Douglas Holtz-Eakin. Statement before the Subcommittee on Readiness Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives. Congressional Budget Office, 06 April 2005.

Study Faults Army Vehicle
R. Jeffrey Smith. Washington Post, 31 March 2005.

Tanks Take a Beating in Iraq
Steven Komarow. USA Today, 29 March 2005.

Supply Gap in Iraq: What Went Wrong
Michael Moss. New York Times, 08 March 2005. Posted on the International Herald Tribune website.

War May Affect Decision Over Replacing Current Tanks
Michael A. Lindenberger. Courier-Journal, 07 April 2003. Posted on the Globalsecurity.org website.

Iraq:  Crashes, Collisions Call Into Question Vulnerability Of Helicopters In Battle
Jolyon Naegele. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 25 March 2003.


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8. Recruitment and Retention

U.S. Military Will Offer Path to Citizenship
Julia Preston. The New York Times, 15 February 2008.

27,000 Work in Pentagon PR and Recruiting
Noah Shachtman. Wired.com, 05 February 2009.

For Military, Bad Economy Aids Recruiting
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 10 October 2008.

Our Shrinking, More Costly Force
Winslow T. Wheeler. Armed Forces Journal, 09 October 2008.

Anecdotal Evidence of a Hollowing Force? A Closer Look at Junior Officer Retention
Capt. Jaron Wharton. Center for a New American Security, May 2008.

Join the Army, Buy a House?
Michael Hill. The Associated Press, 14 February 2008.

The U.S. Army Lowers Recruitment Standards ... Again
Fred Kaplan. Slate, 24 January 2008.

Military Recruiting 2007: Army Misses Benchmarks by Greater Margin
National Priorities Project, 23 January 2008.

Why is the Army Losing So Many Talented Midlevel Officers?
Fred Kaplan. Slate, 16 January 2008.

The Army's Other Crisis
Andrew Tilghman. Washington Monthly, December 2007.

Rebuilding America's Reserves
Phillip Carter. Progressive Policy Institute, 14 November 2007 (.pdf file).

Army, Marine Corps Struggle with Mandate to Expand
Art Pine. National Journal, 12 November 2007.

Recruiters Struggle to Find an Army
Frank Greve. McClatchy Newspapers, 09 November 2007.

To Build a Bigger Force, Army Tries New Tack
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 08 November 2007.

A Complete Guide to the Army's Recruiting Incentives
Phillip Carter and Brad Flora. Slate.com, 07 November 2007.

Military May Ease Standards for Recruits
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 06 November 2007.

Army Marks Record Low Level of Recruits
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 31 October 2007.

Too Much of Too Few
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 26 October 2007.

Army to Offer Recruitment Incentives to Meet Expansion
Megan Scully. Congress Daily, 18 October 2007.

Six-Figure Bonuses Retain US Commandos
Richard Lardner. The Associated Press, 12 October 2007. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

U.S. Army Lowers its Recruiting Standards
Aamer Madhani. Chicago Tribune, 11 October 2007.

Military Sees Big Decline in Black Enlistees
Joseph Williams and Kevin Baron. The Boston Globe, 07 October 2007.

Army Recruitment Meets Stated Goal
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 03 October 2007.

Army Exceeds Recruitment Goal For August by 528
Josh White. Washington Post, 05 September 2007.

Half of Recalled Recruiters Unable to Show Up
Gina Cavallaro. Army Times, 31 August 2007.

Army Looks to Guard for Recruiting Help
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 28 August 2007.

Many Take Army's 'Quick Ship' Bonus
Josh White. Washington Post, 27 August 2007.

Iraq War Brings Drop in Black Enlistees
Sarah Abruzzese. The New York Times, 22 August 2007.

Surge Forces to Start Leaving Next April
David Wood. The Baltimore Sun, 18 August 2007.

U.S. Army Struggles with Soldier Who Won't Pull the Trigger
Mary Wiltenburg. The Christian Science Monitor, 14 August 2007.

Army to Expand Recruiting Incentives
Kimberly Hefling. The Associated Press, 09 August 2007.

At Bronx Latino Festival, the Army Sponsors the Music
Fernanda Santos. The New York Times, 30 July 2007.

Illegal Immigrants: Uncle Sam Wants You
Deborah Davis. In These Times, 25 July 2007.

Army's Middle Ranks Are Dwindling
Faye Fiore. Los Angeles Times, 16 July 2007.

More Entering Army with Criminal Records
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 13 July 2007. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Army Misses Its June Goal for New Recruits
David S. Cloud. The New York Times, 10 July 2007.

Echoing Earlier Generations, Buddies Enlist Together
Kevin Coyne. The New York Times, 01 July 2007.

Gangs of Iraq
Seamus McGraw. Radar Magazine, May 2007. Posted on 13 June 2007.

Army Misses May Recruiting Goal
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 11 June 2007.

Three Brothers Go AWOL
Minneapolis Star Tribune, 06 June 2007.

Fewer High-Quality Army Recruits
Bryan Bender and Kevin Baron. The Boston Globe, 01 June 2007.

Tougher Sell for Recruiters: Dad
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 14 May 2007.

Key U.S. Army Ranks Begin to Thin
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 02 May 2007.

Spending Soars to Keep Troops
The Associated Press, 11 April 2007.

Army Is Cracking Down on Deserters
Paul von Zielbauer. The New York Times, 09 April 2007.

One Muslim's Decision to Join the U.S. Army
Alexandra Marks. The Christian Science Monitor, 28 March 2007.

Army Revises Upward Number of Desertions in '06
Paul von Zielbauer. The New York Times, 23 March 2007.

Army Rushes to Promote its Officers; War Pressures Cited; Quality is a Concern
Bryan Bender and Renee Dudley. Boston Globe, 13 March 2007.

Balancing 'Your Strengths against Your Felonies': Considerations for Military Recruitment of Ex-Offenders
Michael Boucai. The Michael D. Palm Center, February 2007 (.pdf file).

Reports Show Increase in Gang-Related Crimes
Leo Shane III. Stars and Stripes, 08 February 2007. (See reports below).

Gang-Related Activity in the US Armed Forces Increasing
FBI National Gang Intelligence Center, 12 January 2007. Posted on 08 February 2007 (.pdf file).

A Review of Gang Activity Affecting the Army
US Army Criminal Investigation Command, 01 December 2006. Posted on 08 February 2007 (.pdf file).

Pentagon Seeks Creative Ways to Entice Recruits
Drew Brown. McClatchy Newspapers, 28 January 2007.

Pentagon Abandons Active-Duty Time Limit
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 12 January 2007. Posted on the Truthout website.

Recruiting Numbers Exceed Goals
John J. Kruzel. American Forces Press Service, 12 January 2007.

Uncle Sam Wants U.S. Muslims to Serve
Richard Whittle. The Christian Science Monitor, 27 December 2006.

Military Considers Recruiting Foreigners
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 26 December 2006.

With Bigger Army, a Bigger Task for Recruiters
Damien Cave and Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 24 December 2006.

A Military of the Willing Works Best
Berl Brechner. Washington Post, 21 December 2006.

Leaned On As Never Before, Reservists Weigh Re-enlistment
Dave Montgomery and Kevin G. Hall. McClatchy Newspapers, 20 December 2006.

Military Meets or Exceeds Recruiting Goals
The Associated Press, 13 December 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Army Likes Its Older Recruits
Michael Felberbaum. The Associated Press, 11 December 2006.

Affiliation With a Gang Isn't a Crime under Military Law
Sandra Jontz and Bryan Mitchell. Stars and Stripes, 08 December 2006.

Military Recruitment, Beach Party-Style
Justin Bergman. The Associated Press, 29 November 2006.

Army Works to Halt Loss of Officers
Atlanta Journal Constitution, 15 November 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Army Recruiters Accused of Misleading Students to Get Them to Enlist
ABC News, 03 November 2006.

Air Force Recruiting Specialists
The Associated Press, 01 November 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Military Meets Most Recruiting Goals
David Axe. Military.com, 27 October 2006.

Experts Worry Recruiting Standards Are Slipping
Melissa Nix. The Fredericksburg, Va. Free Lance-Star, 23 October 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

A Military Path to Citizenship
Max Boot and Michael O'Hanlon. Washington Post, 19 October 2006.

A Few Bad Men
David Holthouse. Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center, 07 July 2006. Posted on 19 October 2006.

Lower Standards Help Army Recruit Troubled Children
Lolita Baldor. The Associated Press, 10 October 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Army and Other Ground Forces Meet '06 Recruiting Goals
Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 10 October 2006.

For Recruiter, Saying ‘Go Army’ Is a Hard Job
Andrea Elliott. The New York Times, 07 October 2006.

Army Guard Barely Misses Recruiting Goal
The Associated Press, 04 October 2006. Posted on Military.com.

The Growing Iraq Resistance Movement in the U.S. Military
Peter Laufer. AlterNet, 30 September 2006.

Army Meets Yearly Recruiting Goal
The Associated Press, 22 September 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Enjoy the Video Game? Then Join the Army
Patrik Jonsson. The Christian Science Monitor, 19 September 2006.

Military Will Meet '06 Recruiting Goals
Rowan Scarborough. The Washington Times, 14 September 2006.

Army Adds Real Soldiers to Video Game
Matt Slagle. The Associated Press, 14 September 2006.

Army Tries Private Pitch For Recruits
Renae Merle. Washington Post, 06 September 2006.

Newest Army Recruits: the Over-35 Crowd
Patrik Jonsson. The Christian Science Monitor, 06 September 2006.

Army Meets its Retention Goal
The Associated Press, 31 August 2006. Posted on Military.com.

$900,000 Paid to Army Reservists Who Deserted
The Associated Press, 29 August 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

'We Shall Not be Moved'
Gary Younge. The Guardian, 26 August 2006.

AP Probe Looks at Recruiters' Misconduct
Martha Mendoza. The Associated Press, 20 August 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Out-of-Uniform Troops Called to Serve in Iraq
Rebecca Santana. The Associated Press, 20 August 2006. Posted on the Columbus Dispatch website.

Army Acknowledges Taking More Low-Scoring Recruits
David Wood. Baltimore Sun, 16 August 2006.

Military Recruiting: DOD and Services Need Better Data to Enhance Visibility over Recruiting Irregularities
Government Accountability Office, 08 August 2006 (.pdf file).

40,000 US Troops Have Deserted Since 2000
Ana Radelat. Gannett News Service, 05 August 2006.

Army Makes Way for Older Soldiers
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 01 August 2006.

Teen Takes on Guard Recruiting Challenge
The Associated Press, 31 July 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Army Upbeat on Recruit Numbers
Mark Sappenfield. The Christian Science Monitor, 11 July 2006.

Hate Groups Are Infiltrating the Military, Group Asserts
John Kifner. The New York Times, 07 July 2006.

Thousands of Troops Say They Won't Fight
Ana Radelat. Gannett News Service, 05 July 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Pulling No Punches in Push for Navy SEALs
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 20 June 2006.

What Happens When the Horror of Iraq Become Too Much For a Soldier to Bear?
Neil Makay. The Scotsman, 18 June 2006.

Amid War, Troops See Safety in Reenlisting
Faye Fiore. Los Angeles Times, 21 May 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Latinos Enlisting in Record Numbers
Justin Berton. San Francisco Chronicle, 15 May 2006.

Army Using Policy to Deny Reserve Officer Resignations
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 11 May 2006.

Army Hits Recruiting Goal; Reserve, Guard Miss
Will Dunham. Reuters, 10 May 2006.

DoD Takes Recruiting to New Heights
The Associated Press, 08 May 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Recruiting Abuses Mount as Army Struggles to Meet Goals
Michelle Roberts. Newhouse News Service, 07 May 2006.

Gangs Claim Their Turf in Iraq
Frank Main. Chicago Sun-Times, 01 May 2006.

U.S. Military Struggling to Recruit Arab-Americans
Caroline Drees. Reuters, 27 April 2006.

Guard Recruiters Try Realism and Succeed
Kris Axtman. The Christian Science Monitor, 12 April 2006.

Army Meets Recruiting Goals
The Associated Press, 11 April 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Young Officers Leaving Army at a High Rate
Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 10 April 2006.

Army to Relax Policy on Tattoos
Reuters, 03 April 2006. Posted on the Washington Post website.

State Dept. Offers Record Pay in 2 Hot Spots
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 28 March 2006.

Soldiers Flee to Canada to Avoid Iraq Duty
Duncan Campbell. The Guardian, 28 March 2006.

Most Americans Not Fit to Join
The Associated Press, 13 March 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Army Guard Refilling Its Ranks: Members Get Bonus For New Recruits
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 12 March 2006.

The War At Home: Recruiters Struggle To Keep the Army From Breaking
Christopher Griffin. Armed Forces Journal, 06 March 2006. Posted on the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

8,000 Desert During Iraq War
Bill Nichols. USA Today, 06 March 2006.

African-American Enlistments Decline
The Associated Press, 06 March 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Don't Dumb Down the Army
Kelly M. Greenhill. The New York Times, 17 February 2006. Posted on the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University website.

Army Accepting More Recruits With Criminal, Drug Histories
Tom Bowman. The Baltimore Sun, 14 February 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Army Offers Incentives to Try to Retain Officers
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 12 February 2006.

Army Effort to Enlist Hispanics Draws Recruits, and Criticism
Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 09 February 2006.

Army Exceeds January Recruiting Goal
Michelle Tan. Army Times, 07 February 2006.

For a General, a Tough Mission: Building the Army
Damien Cave. The New York Times, 05 February 2006.

Out of Jail, Into the Army
Mark Benjamin. Salon, 02 February 2006.

Iraqi Desertions Complicate U.S. Mission
Antonio Castaneda. The Associated Press, 31 January 2006.

Turnaround in Recruiting Puts Guard on Path for Expansion
The Associated Press, 31 January 2006.

Army's Rising Promotion Rate Called Ominous
Mark Mazzetti. Los Angeles Times, 30 January 2006.

19,000 Fewer Young Soldiers Than in 2001
Pamela Hess. United Press International, 28 January 2006.

U.S. Army Raises Maximum Age for Enlistment
Will Dunham. Reuters, 18 January 2006.

Army Re-enlistment Figures Up, But Recruitment Lags
Drew Brown. Knight Ridder Newspapers, 18 January 2006.

The Military Recruiter's Lament
Scott Ritter. AlterNet.org, 18 January 2006.

Army Increases Enlistment Bonuses
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 18 January 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

In Bid To Keep Troops, Military Appealing to Families
Steve Liewer. San Diego Union-Tribune, 17 January 2006.

More Hiring of Veterans Urged
Christopher Lee. Washington Post, 17 January 2006.

Number of Enlisted Personnel Leaving Armed Services on the Rise
Martha Mendoza. The Associated Press, 15 January 2006. Posted on the San Diego Union-Tribune website.

Guard Recruiting Assistance Program Opens
Michelle Tan. Army Times, 12 January 2006.

U.S. Army Achieves Minimal December Recruiting Goal
Will Dunham. Reuters, 10 January 2006.

GI Schmo - How Low Can Army Recruiters Go?
Fred Kaplan. Slate, 09 January 2006.

Reservists Who Refused to Mobilize Discharged
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 09 January 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Iraq Looms Close for Private Recruited in Wartime
Monica Davey. The New York Times, 02 January 2006.

Some Soldiers Trying to Get Out Of Army
Martha Mendoza. The Associated Press, 31 December 2005.

A Struggle Over Military Recruitment of Students
Tom Regan. The Christian Science Monitor, 28 December 2005.

Guard Turns to Pizza, iTunes for Recruiting
Mitch Lipka. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 26 December 2005. Posted on the Red Orbit website.

Fewer African-Americans Enlisting in the Military
Drew Brown. Knight Ridder Newspapers, 20 December 2005.

Army Allows Reserve Officers to Leave Rather Than Go to War
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 19 December 2005.

GIs in Iraq Choosing to Re-Up
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 18 December 2005.

Short of Recruits, Army Redoes its Math
Mark Sappenfield. The Christian Science Monitor, 15 December 2005.

Monthly Recruiting Goals Exceeded
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 13 December 2005. Posted on the Army Times website.

Guard Offers its Members Bonus For Recruiting Others
Harry Levins. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 30 November 2005.

Army to Accept Servicemembers At Old Rank
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 29 November 2005. Posted on the Seattle Post-Intelligencer website.

Military Personnel: DoD Needs Action Plan to Address Enlisted Personnel Recruitment and Retention Challenges
GAO Report to Congressional Committees, November 2005.

First Job Out of College: Combat-Zone Commander
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 27 November 2005. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Uncle Sam Lures More From Rural Michigan: Money, Education Attract Military Recruits Who See Few Opportunities in Small Towns
Brad Heath and Norman Sinclair. The Detroit News, 27 November 2005.

Generally, Texas Guard Faces a Lack of Mid-level Officers
Sig Christenson. San Antonio Express-News, 26 November 2005.

Their Time's Up, But These Soldiers Are Stuck in Iraq
Hart Seely. The Syracuse Post-Standard, 20 November 2005. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Vital Military Jobs Go Unfilled, Study Says
Damien Cave. The New York Times, 18 November 2005.

Army to Halt Call-Ups of Inactive Soldiers
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 18 November 2005.

Army Reaches Low, Fills Ranks
Tom Bowman. Baltimore Sun, 08 November 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

Incentives Beefed Up to Keep Young Officers in the Army
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 07 November 2005.

Opportunities, Opposition to Iraq War Cut into Recruiting
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 04 November 2005.

Youths in Rural U.S. Are Drawn To Military
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 04 November 2005.

Military Recruiting Ads Zero in on Mom, Dad
Joe Garofoli. San Francisco Chronicle, 18 October 2005.

Army Misses Fiscal 2005 Recruiting Goals
Leo Shane III. Stars and Stripes, 13 October 2005.

The Army's Musical Pitch: Download, Join Up
Washington Post, 11 October 2005.

Army Lowers Bar for Recruits
Miami Herald, 04 October 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

Senate Gives Nod to Recruiting Older Citizens
Rick Maze. Army Times, 04 October 2005.

GEDs No Longer Required
Joseph R. Chenelly. Army Times, 20 September 2005.

War Opponents Target Military Recruiters in High School
Mary Beth Marklein. USA Today, 20 September 2005.

Transforming the Rewards for Military Service
Cindy Williams. M.I.T. Security Studies Program Occasional Paper, September 2005. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute Website (.pdf file).

Parent-Trap Snares Recruiters
Jack Kelly. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 11 August 2005.

Families Learn of Recruiters' Lists - And How to Opt Out
Seema Mehta. Los Angeles Times, 07 August 2005. Posted on the Truthout website.

Military Loses Its Luster Among High School Grads, Parents
Steve Earley. Daily Freeman, 31 July 2005.

As Recruiting Suffers, Military Reins In Abuses at Boot Camp
Erik Eckholm. New York Times, 26 July 2005.

Cyberstalking the Recruitable Teen
Nick Turse and Tom Engelhardt. Tom Dispatch, 13 July 2005. Posted on the Antiwar.com website.

Parents Worried About Iraq War Resist Military Recruitment Strategies
Rick Montgomery and Scott Canon. Kansas City Star, 10 July 2005. Posted on The State website.

Old Soldiers Back on Duty
CBS News, 03 July 2005.

Military Recruiters Find the War a Difficult Sell
Sarah Schweitzer and Peter Canellos. Boston Globe, 05 July 2005.

Filling the Army's Ranks for the Iraq War
Cindy Williams. MIT Security Studies Program, Audit of the Conventional Wisdom, July 2005. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website (.pdf file).

Army Recruits Shortfall Blamed on Iraq War Critics
Vicki Allen. Reuters, 30 June 2005. Posted on the Free Republic website.

Pentagon Creating Student Database
Jonathan Krim. Washington Post, 23 June 2005.

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[Occupation Distress Home]

More Recruiters, Advertising Part of Effort to Help Army's Shortfall
Drew Brown. Knight-Ridder, 14 June 2005.

Army to Set New Criteria for Officers
Tom Bowman. Baltimore Sun, 12 June 2005.

Army Recruiting More High School Dropouts to Meet Goals
Eric Schmitt. New York Times, 11 June 2005. Posted on the Liberty Post website.

U.S. Army Faces Recruiting Shortfall for 2005; Long-Term Outlook Uncertain
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 08 June 2005.

When Marine Recruiters Go Way Beyond the Call
Susan Paynter. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 08 June 2005.

US Lowers Standards in Army Numbers Crisis
Jamie Wilson. The Guardian, 04 June 2005.

DoD Assumes Responsibility for Releasing Recruiting Stats
Laura Bailey. Army Times, 03 June 2005.

Not Enough Troops To Hold Ground
Charlotte Observer, 03 June 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

Growing Problem for Military Recruiters: Parents
Damien Cave. New York Times, 03 June 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

US Military Finds Itself in Twilight Zone
Jim Lobe. Inter Press Service, 31 May 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Army's Recruitment Crisis Deepens
Robert Novak. Chicago Sun-Times, 26 May 2005. Posted on the Catholic Peace Fellowship website.

Army Offers 15-Month Hitch
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 13 May 2005.

Enrollment in Army ROTC Down in Past 2 School Years
Josh White. Washington Post, 24 April 2005.

Study Shows 20 Percent Decrease in Non-Citizen Enlistees in U.S. Military
Laura Wides. The Associated Press, 17 April 2005. Posted on the Taft Midway Driller website.

They’re Talking Up Arms
Erika Hayasaki. Los Angeles Times, 05 April 2005. Posted on the Truthout website.

As War Stretches On, Recruiters Scramble
Mark Sappenfield. Christian Science Monitor, 28 March 2005.

Conflict in Iraq Hampers Recruiting
Marcus Franklin. St. Petersburg Times, 28 March 2005.

For Recruiters, a Hard Toll From a Hard Sell
Damien Cave. New York Times, 27 March 2005.

Army Still Behind in Recruiting
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 24 March 2005.

New Recruiting Campaign to Appeal to Patriotism
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 24 March 2005. Posted on the Army Times website.

Army Raises Enlistment Age for Reservists to 39
Reuters, 21 March 2005.

African-American Youths Are Rejecting Army, Military Says
Ron Harris. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 15 March 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Steady Drop in Black Army Recruits
Josh White. Washington Post, 09 March 2005.

For Guard Recruiters, A Tough Sell
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 09 March 2005.

U.S. Army Struggles to Coax Recruits Amid Iraq War
Will Dunham. Reuters, 06 March 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Study Shows 41% Drop in Number of Black Army Recruits Since 2000
Tom Philpott. Stars and Stripes, 04 March 2005.

Army Officials Voice Concern Over Shortfall in Recruitment
Eric Schmitt. New York Times, 04 March 2005.

Army Misses Recruiting Goal
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 02 March 2005.

AWOL in America: When Desertion Is the Only Option
Kathy Dobie. Harper’s, March 2005. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

Army Having Difficulty Meeting Goals in Recruiting
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 21 February 2005.

Top Army Recruiter: Draft Wouldn't Help
The Associated Press, 18 February 2005. Posted on the USA Today website.

Marines Come Up Short on Recruits
Eric Schmitt. New York Times, 03 February 2005. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

Army Says It'll Meet Recruitment Target
Richard Whittle. Dallas Morning News, 02 February 2005.

Recruits Swamp Navy, Air Force
Dave Moniz. USA Today, 23 January 2005.

Where Are the New Recruits? The National Guard and Army Reserve Are Drawing Fewer Enlistees
Mark Thompson. Time Magazine, 14 January 2005.

Troops let Guard down: Mass. National Guard faces recruiting crisis
Thomas Caywood. Boston Herald, 13 October 2004.

General: Guard to fall short of recruiting goals
MSNBC, 23 September 2004.

Refusal by Some Reservists to be Deployed Back to the Middle East Following a Short Time Back in the US
Brian Mann. NPR, 04 December 2003. Posted on the Globalsecurity.org website.

Army Reserve battling an exodus
Robert Schlesinger, Boston Globe, 23 September 2003.


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9. Community and Families

When Strains on Military Families Turn Deadly
Lizette Alvarez and Deborah Sontag. The New York Times, 15 February 2008.

Study: New War Veterans Face Job Woes
Hope Yen. The Associated Press, 07 February 2008.

Lengthy Volunteer Stints Burn Out Military Wives
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 17 January 2008.

Across America, Deadly Echoes of Foreign Battles
Deborah Sontag and Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 13 January 2008.

Back Home, a Struggle to Reconnect
Anna Badkhen. The Boston Globe, 06 January 2008.

Divorce is Hidden Cost of Iraq War, Couple Says
Karen Brown. NPR, 18 December 2007 (audio).

Veterans Are Home, But Not At Ease
James Hohmann. The Dallas Morning News, 10 November 2007.

Surge Seen in Number of Homeless Veterans
Erik Eckholm. The New York Times, 08 November 2007. (See report below).

Vital Mission: Ending Homelessness Among Veterans
Mary Cunningham et al. National Alliance To End Homelessness, 08 November 2007 (.pdf file).

Veterans Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan
National Alliance To End Homelessness, 08 November 2007 (.pdf file).

Iraq Reservists Report Problems Returning Back to Work
Hope Yen. The Associated Press, 08 November 2007.

The Other Wounded
Sandra G. Boodman. Washington Post,06 November 2007.

The Cost of Returning to War
David Wood. Baltimore Sun, 30 September 2007.

Returning From Iraq, Wounded Vets Now Suffer Financial Woes
Jeff Donn and Kimberly Hefling. The Associated Press, 29 September 2007.

Army to Urge More Time At Home For Soldiers
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 26 September 2007.

A Way Out of Debt by Way of Iraq
John Leland. The New York Times, 03 September 2007.

Army Deployment's Toll on Children Studied
Alison Williams. Los Angeles Times, 01 August 2007.

Study: Child Abuse, Troop Deployment Linked
Robert Davis and Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 08 May 2007.

Deployed Troops Battle for Custody
The Associated Press, 06 May 2007.

Military's Divorce Rate Up, but Just a Bit
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 13 April 2007. (See report below)

Families Under Stress: An Assessment of Data, Theory, and Research on Marriage and Divorce in the Military
Benjamin R. Karney and John S. Crown. RAND, 12 April 2007 (.pdf file).

More Veterans Calling the Streets Home
CBS News, 25 March 2007.

From Serving in Iraq To Living on the Streets
Christian Davenport. Washington Post, 05 March 2007.

Report: Mental Health System Overwhelmed
Seth Borenstein. The Associated Press, 27 February 2007. (See report below).

The Psychological Needs of U.S. Military Service Members and Their Families
American Psychological Association, February 2007 (.pdf file).

Providing Child Care to Military Families
Joy S. Moini, Gail L. Zellman and Susan M. Gates. RAND, 26 February 2007 (.pdf file).

Long Iraq Tours Can Make Home a Trying Front
Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 23 February 2007.

Citizen-Soldiers Answering the Call -- At a High Price
C.W. Nevius. San Francisco Chronicle, 14 January 2007.

Pentagon to Pay Troops for Lost Time at Home
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 11 January 2007.

Military Bases, Families Bearing Brunt of War
Kevin G . Hall and David Montgomery. McClatchy Newspapers, 07 December 2006.

Next Assignment: Civilian Life
Diane Stafford. The Kansas City Star, 05 December 2006.

Long Stints in Iraq Fracture Families
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 26 November 2006.

Army Wife Distrusts Timetables
Karen Breslau. Newsweek, 30 October 2006.

When the War Comes Home
Peter Slevin. Washington Post, 30 October 2006.

Debt Keeping Troops From Duty
Thomas Watkins. The Associated Press, 24 October 2006. Posted on the Washington Post website.

Battered Marines Adjust to Civilian Life
The Associated Press, 08 October 2006. Posted on the Seattle Post-Intelligencer website.

U.S. Army 'Coming to End of its Rope'
Lynda Hurst. The Toronto Star, 29 September 2006.

Troops and Families Battle Iraq Fatigue
Michael Hastings. Newsweek, 18 September 2006. Posted on 11 September 2006.

U.S. Army Reviewing Afghan and Iraq Casualty Reports
Scott Lindlaw. The Associated Press, 25 August 2006.

The Effect of Reserve Activations and Active-Duty Deployments on Local Employment During the Global War on Terrorism
David S. Loughran, Jacob Alex Klerman and Bogdan Savych. RAND, 2006 (.pdf file).

Young Vets Joining Unemployment Lines
Katherine Hutt Scott. Gannett News Service, 26 July 2006.

A Union Tested by War
Michael E. Ruane. Washington Post, 28 May 2006.

Some Iraq War Vets Go Homeless After Return to U.S.
Daniel Trotta. Reuters, 19 May 2006.

For Soldiers Returning From Iraq, Another Battle Awaits
Dan Lohaus. The Huffington Post, 03 May 2006.

Returning From War, Soldiers Splurge
Mark Sappenfield. The Christian Science Monitor, 18 April 2006.

For Some Families, Notification of Army Deaths Repeats Pain
Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 07 April 2006.

New Battle on the Home Front
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 04 April 2006.

Battling Back to Normal Life
Nancy Dillon. New York Daily News, 26 February 2006.

Strain and Battle Fatigue of War Hit Home Front
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 20 February 2006.

DoD Reviewing Policy on Returning Servicemembers' Remains
Leo Shane III. Stars and Stripes, 26 January 2006.

Pentagon to Families: Go Ahead, Laugh
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 12 January 2006.

Soldiers' Divorce Rate Drops After 2004 Increase
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 09 January 2006.

Society Marked by Reality of War
The Associated Press, 02 January 2006.

Officer Divorce Rates Fall
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 16 December 2005.

Companies Help Soldiers' Spouses Find Jobs
The Associated Press, 16 December 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

War's Trauma Wears on the Children Left Behind
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 13 December 2005. Posted on the Army Times website.

Guardsman Still Seeking Re-Up Bonus Due Last June
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 13 December 2005.

Family Upset After Soldier's Body Shipped As Freight
KGTV, San Diego, 13 December 2005.

War Taking Toll on N.C. Military Marriages
Jay Price. The Raleigh News & Observer, 27 November 2005. Posted on the Herald Sun website.

Returning US Soldiers Face Financial, Medical Difficulties
Tom Regan. Christian Science Monitor, 18 October 2005.

Mississippi Guardsmen in Iraq Refused Leave Time
Washington Post, 11 September 2005. Posted on the Information Clearing House website.

After Duty in Iraq, a New Transition to Being the Nonfighting 69th
Jeffrey Gettleman. New York Times, 10 September 2005.

Money Woes on Home Front
Brad Knickerbocker. Christian Science Monitor, 11 August 2005.

Finding Work Hard for Troops Back From War
Kimberly Hefling. The Associated Press, 03 June 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

For Troops, Home Can Be Too Close
Irene M. Wielawski. New York Times, 15 March 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

Army Seeks to Salvage War-Torn Marriages
Kimberly Hefling. Boston Globe, 30 December 2004.


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10. Stability Operations

An Evolving Role for the Army
Spencer Ackerman. The Washington Independent, 07 October 2008. (see manual below)

Stability Operations
Department of the US Army, 06 October 2008 (.pdf file).

The Petraeus Doctrine
Andrew J. Bacevich. The Atlantic, October 2008.

Stability Operations and State Building: Continuities and Contingencies
Col. Greg Kaufmann. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 30 September 2008 (.pdf file).

U.S. Ponders War Message, and How Best to Deliver It
Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 15 November 2007.

Air Force Said to Seek $50 bln Emergency Funds
Andrea Shalal-Esa. Reuters, 31 October 2006.

U.S. Directive Prioritizes Post-Conflict Stability
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 01 December 2005.

US Army Orders Involuntary Troop Call-Up
ABC News Australia, 24 March 2005.

Reserve, Guard Units Will Have to Wait to Replace Gear Left in Mideast
Jon R. Anderson. Stars and Stripes, 18 February 2005.

General Reported Shortages In Iraq
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 18 October 2004.

Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations& Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
Nina M. Serafino. Congression Research Service, 9 August 2004 (.pdf file). Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

Governors Tell of War's Impact on Local Needs
Sarah Kershaw. New York Times, 20 July 2004. Posted on the Truthout website.

Options for Changing The Army's Overseas Basing
Congressional Budget Office, May 2004 (.pdf file). Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

Observations on Recent National Guard Use in Overseas and Homeland Missions and Future Challenges
Janet A. St. Laurent. Testimony before the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, 29 April 2004 (.pdf file).

The Ability of the U.S. Military to Sustain an Occupation in Iraq
Douglas Holtz-Eakin. Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, 5 November 2003. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute Website (.pdf file).

The Global War on Terrorism: An Early Look at Implications for the Army
Bruce Nardulli. RAND DB416, 2003 (.pdf file).


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11. Military Reform and Restructure

War by Other Means -- Building Complete and Balanced Capabilities for Counterinsurgency: RAND Counterinsurgency Study
David C. Gompert et al. RAND, 11 February 2008 (.pdf file).

Military Hospitals Meet New Realities
Steve Vogel. Washington Post, 11 February 2008.

After Hard-Won Lessons, Army Doctrine Revised
Michael R. Gordon. The New York Times, 08 February 2008.

Modernize U.S. Reserve and Guard, Federal Panel Says
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 01 February 2008. (See report below)

Transforming the National Guard and Reserves into a 21st Century Operational Force
Commission on the National Guard and Reserves, 31 January 2008 (.pdf file).

The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare
Benjamin S. Lambeth. RAND, 27 December 2007 (.pdf file).

The Army's $200 Billion Makeover
Alec Klein. The Washington Post, 07 December 2007.

Army Modernization Scheme Struggling for Relevance
David Axe. World Politics Review, 16 November 2007.

Army Seeks to Balance Near-Term, Future Needs
Megan Scully. CongressDaily, 11 October 2007. Posted on GovExec.com.

U.S. Army Force Restructuring, 'Modularity,' and Iraq
Michael Moran. Council on Foreign Relations, 14 September 2007.

Budgeting for Empire: The Effect of Iraq and Afghanistan on Military Forces, Budgets and Plans
David Isenberg. Independent Policy Report, 30 January 2007. Posted on 05 September 2007 (.pdf file).

Army Policies Don't Keep Women Off Front Lines
Jack Zahora. NPR, 26 August 2007. (See report below)

Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women
Margaret C. Harrell et al. RAND, 07 August 2007. Posted on 26 August 2007 (.pdf file).

Iraq War Forcing U.S. Army to Adapt
Sharon Behn. The Washington Times, 04 July 2007.

Army Reservists Ordered For Screenings
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 12 June 2007.

Rethinking Insurgency
Steven Metz. Strategic Studies Institute, 05 June 2007 (.pdf file).

Future Navy: Open Architecture May Matter More Than Iraq
Loren B. Thompson. Lexington Institute, 05 June 2007.

The Army We Have
Brian Mockenhaupt. The Atlantic Monthly, June 2007.

A Failure in Generalship
Lt. Col. Paul Yingling. Armed Forces Journal, May 2007. Posted on 27 April 2007.

Strategic Imperative: The Necessity for Values Operations as Opposed to Information Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan
Col. William M. Darley. Air and Space Power Journal, Spring 2007. Posted on 04 April 2007.

Problems Cited Between V.A. and Pentagon
Ian Urbina and Ron Nixon. The New York Times, 27 March 2007.

New Style of War Key to Success in Iraq
Sydney J. Freedberg. The National Journal, 26 March 2007.

Military Growth May Resurrect Old Units
David Axe. Military.com, 29 January 2007.

Army Hopes Troop Buildup Won't Rob Modernization
Megan Scully. Congress Daily, 10 January 2007.

After Iraq, a New U.S. Military Model
Stanley A. Weiss. The International Herald Tribune, 26 December 2006.

U.S. Military 'Transformation' Is Dead: Analysts
Bill Rigby. Reuters, 07 December 2006. (Also see report below).

A Christmas List for America's Army
Loren B. Thompson. Lexington Institute, 05 December 2006.

Veteran Reservists Sought to Train Deploying Soldiers
Michelle Tan. Army Times, 29 November 2006.

Army to Spread Burden of Combat
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 27 October 2006.

Army Updates Leadership Field Manual
Michelle Tan. Army Times, 26 October 2006.

Funding Bill Includes $5.8B to Reset Corps
Christian Lowe. Marine Corps Times, 28 September 2006.

Train Soldiers to Win Hearts and Minds
Erik Swabb. The Christian Science Monitor, 20 September 2006.

More Military Police, Civil Affairs Forces Needed
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 06 September 2006. (See report below).

Force Structure: DOD Needs To Integrate Data Into Its Force Identification Process and Examine Options to Meet Requirements for High-Demand Support Forces
Governement Accountability Office, 05 September 2006 (.pdf file).

Army Makes Push for Reset Funds
Greg Grant. Army Times, 05 September 2006.

How Iraq, Afghanistan have changed War 101
Mark Sappenfield. The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 2006.

Guard Faces Phase-Out of Combat Role
Julian E. Barnes. Los Angeles Times, 08 May 2006.

Army Revamping Training, Structure
Charles A. Radin. The Boston Globe, 12 April 2006.

Troops Learn to Not Offend
Gretchen Cuda. Wired News, 11 April 2006.

Airmen Get New Skills for War
Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 10 April 2006.

Sailors Learn Army Basics to Prep for Downrange Deployment
Sandra Jontz. Stars and Stripes, 03 April 2006.

The Army in Transition: Confronting the Global Challenges of the War on Terror
Brig. Gen. Mike Milano. National Defense Industrial Association, 15 March 2006 (.pdf file).

Army Overhaul Prompts New Approach to Training
James Kitfield. National Journal, 15 March 2006. Posted on the GovExec.com website.

Troops Honed in '03 Fighting a Different War in Iraq
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 18 February 2006.

Marines' Somber Duty
Jeremy Redmon. Cox News Service, 25 January 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Lessons Learned in Iraq Show Up in Army Classes
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 21 January 2006.

Military Aims To Bolster Language Skills
Tom Bowman. The Baltimore Sun, 02 January 2006. Posted on the Campus Watch website.

Personnel, not Programs, May Face Cuts
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 14 December 2005. Posted on the Army Times website.

Modular Brigade Budget Supplements to End
Gopal Ratnam. Army Times, 12 December 2005.

White House Tries to Trim Military Cost
Leslie Wayne. The New York Times, 06 December 2005.

Pentagon to Raise Importance of 'Stability' Efforts in War
Thom Shanker and David S. Cloud. The New York Times, 20 November 2005.

No More Blank-Check Wars
Leslie H. Gelb and Anne-Marie Slaughter. Washington Post, 08 November 2005.

Military Ordered To Trim Budgets
Renae Merle and Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 04 November 2005.

Elite Marine Unit to Help Fight Terrorism
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 02 November 2005.

Military May Propose an Active-Duty Force for Relief Efforts
Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker. New York Times, 11 October 2005.

War in Iraq Shifts Air Force into Ground Roles
Mark Mazzetti and Greg Miller. Los Angeles Times, 11 October 2005.

Army Reorganizes to Boost Its Combat Power
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 07 October 2005.

Expanded Military Role a Touchy Issue
Alex Leary and Paul de la Garza. St. Petersburg Times, 27 September 2005.

After Duty in Iraq, a New Transition to Being the Nonfighting 69th
Jeffrey Gettleman. New York Times, 10 September 2005.

Planned Realignment of Troops Criticized
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 06 May 2005.

Interagency Contracting
GAO, 29 April 2005 (.pdf file).

An Army Program to Build a High-Tech Force Hits Cost Snags
Tim Weiner. New York Times, 28 March 2005.

Rumsfeld: Scale Back Military Education
Pamela Hess. United Press International, 22 February 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

U.S. Military Still Transforming Itself for Distant Battles
Drew Brown. Knight-Ridder, 03 February 2005.

US Women Get Closer to Combat
Bryan Bender. Boston Globe, 26 January 2005.

Army to Upgrade Armor on Older Personnel Carriers
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 05 January 2005.

Troop Costs Take Bigger Bite Out of Defense-Contract Pie
James Flanigan. Los Angeles Times, 02 January 2005.

New Moves Set Stage for a Stronger, Combat-Ready Force
R.L. Brownlee and Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker. Army News Service, 05 August 2004.

U.S. Army's Modular Redesign: Issues for Congress
Andrew Feickert. Congressional Research Service, 19 July 2004 (.pdf file). Posted on the Federation of American Scientists website.

Army Transformation: Implications for the Future
Douglas Macgregor. Testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, 15 July 2004 (.pdf file).

Military Forces: What is the Appropriate Size for the United States?
Edward F. Bruner. CRS, 28 May 2004 (.pdf file). Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

Pentagon repositioning for decades-long war on terror
Matt Kelley. The Associated Press, 25 October 2003.

Four Wars and Counting:  The Need for a New Approach to Strategy and Force Planning
Anthony H. Cordesman. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 27 August 2003.

Congress Lumbers Toward Developing An Agile Military
Pat Towell. Congressional Quarterly Weekly, 10 May 2003.

Prepared Statement of The Honorable David S. C. Chu, Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness)
The Military Personnel Subcommittee, Senate Armed Services Committee, 11 March 2003 (.pdf file).

Turbulence, Tempo, and Rotation: An Army in Motion
in "Toward an Expeditionary Army", RAND Arroyo Center Annual Report, 2003 (.pdf file).

Army Stationing [in Europe] and Rotation Policy
W. Michael Hix, J. Michael Polich, and Thomas F. Lippiatt. RAND DB-421-A, 2003 [based on research completed in 1997] (.pdf file).

2002 The Effects of Perstempo on Officer Retention in the U.S. Military
Ronald D. Fricker, Jr. RAND, 2002.

Deployments and Army Personnel Tempo
J. Michael Polich and Ron Sortor. RAND MR-1417-A, 2001.

Army PERSTEMPO in the Post Cold War Era
Claire M. Levy, Harry Thie, Jerry M. Sollinger, Jennifer H. Kawata. RAND MR-1032-OSD, 2000.

Personnel Turbulence:  The Policy Determinants of Permanent Change of Station Moves
W. Michael Hix, et al. RAND MR-938-A, 1998.


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12. Overviews

Reagan and the Draft
Lawrence Korb. The Washington Times, 16 May 2008. Response to O'Hanlon article below.

U.S. Military Check-Up Time
Michael O'Hanlon. The Washington Times, 04 May 2008. Posted on the Brookings Institution website.

Military's Anguish
George C. Wilson. CongressDaily Forward Observer, 03 December 2007. Posted on 01 February 2008 (.pdf file).

The Lessons of Iraq
Erik Swabb. Wall Street Journal, 14 January 2008.

Iraq: The Hidden Human Costs
Michael Massing. The New York Review of Books, 20 December 2007 issues. Posted on 03 December 2007.

Wars Have Taken a Heavy Toll on the Military, Panel Says
Dale Eisman. The Virginian-Pilot, 14 November 2007.

The Future of the U.S. Military
Greg Bruno. The Council on Foreign Relations, 07 November 2007.

Irregular Warfare - After Smart Weapons, Smart Soldiers
The Economist, 25 October 2007.

Saving the Military from Itself
William Astore and Tom Engelhardt. Tom Dispatch, 05 October 2007. Posted on Antiwar.com.

Army Reports Brass, Not Bloggers, Breach Security
Noah Schachtman. Wired, 17 August 2007.

All Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance
Congressional Budget Office, 19 July 2007 (.pdf file).

Enlisting Madison Avenue: The Marketing Approach to Earning Popular Support in Theaters of Operation
Todd C. Helmus, Christopher Paul, Russell W. Glenn. RAND, 17 July 2007 (.pdf file).

Shortchanged in Battle
Center for American Progress, 18 May 2007.

Trained to Harm: How the Military Abuses Its Own
JoAnn Wypijewski. The Washington Spectator. Posted on AlterNet on 10 May 2007.

Army Cost-Cutting in Budget Standoff May Actually Add to Costs
Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 18 April 2007.

Smaller Staff Changes IG Mission
Charlie Coon. Stars & Stripes, 08 April 2007.

Have You No Sense of Decency?
Col. Dan Smith. Defense and the National Interest, 05 April 2007.

Military Funding: the Newest Version of Chicken
Silla Brush. U.S. News and World Report, 03 April 2007.

Politics and Military Spending
Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 01 April 2007.

Pentagon Says Funding Delay Would Affect Rotations, Training, Repairs
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 01 April 2007.

Army Warns Rumsfeld It's Billions Short
Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 25 September 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

I Want You!: The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force
Bernard D. Rostker. Excerpts from book, RAND, 14 September 2006.

Shame on Congress for Mistreatment of Military
Joseph L. Galloway. McClatchy Newspapers, 16 August 2006.

Hagel: 'We are Decimating our Army'
Kevin Freking. The Associated Press, 07 August 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Lieberman: Poor Contract Oversight Hurts Combat Troops
Rick Maze. The Marine Corps Times, 02 August 2006.

Lawmakers: Army Needs Money for Troops
William Matthews. Army Times, 26 July 2006.

Army to Cut Domestic Spending
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 21 July 2006.

GAO Says Government Pesters Wounded Soldiers Over Debts
Donna St. George. Washington Post, 27 April 2006. (See report below).

Military Pay: Hundreds of Battle-Injured GWOT Soldiers Have Struggled to Resolve Military Debts
GAO Report to Congressional Requesters, April 2006 (.pdf file).

For Older Warriors, Experience Beats Athleticism
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 14 March 2006.

Early Results on Activations and the Earnings of Reservists
Jacob Alex Klerman, David S. Loughran and Craig Martin. RAND, 25 January 2006 (.pdf file).

Troops Return from Iraq with Money to Burn
Russ Bynum. The Associated Press, 21 January 2006. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Impact of the War on Terrorism on the USAF
Brig. Gen. Dutch Holland. U.S. Air Force, 2006 (.pdf file).

Defense Spending Bill Extends Benefits
David Hammer. The Associated Press, 16 November 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

Defense Spending Is Overstated, GAO Report Says
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 22 September 2005.

Willful Ignorance: How the Pentagon Sent the Army to Iraq without a Counterinsurgency Doctrine
Jason Vest. Center for Defense Information, 16 September 2005.

Army Probes Guard Unit
Scott Gold and Rone Tempest. Los Angeles Times, 27 July 2005. Posted on the Veterans for Common Sense website.

Army Study: U.S. Facing Hard Choices
Michael Kilian. Chicago Tribune, 12 July 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

Detention of US Security Contractors Highlights "Culture of Impunity" in Iraq
James Cogan. World Socialist Web Site, 17 June 2005.

The Rumsfeld Stain
Bob Herbert. New York Times, 23 May 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Unready for Combat
Bryan Bender. Boston Globe, 26 April 2005.

Comforts of Home Amid Perils of Iraq
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 27 March 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

Two Years and Counting
Lawrence J. Korb and Nigel Holmes. New York Times, 20 March 2005 (.gif file).

Sending In the Reserves
David Axe. Village Voice, 15 March 2005.

Pentagon Spending More Per Soldier Than During Any Previous War
John J. Lumpkin. The Associated Press, 16 February 2005. Posted on the Sign on San Diego website.

Rumsfeld: U.S. Military 'Stressed'
CNN, 06 February 2005.

This Pollyanna Army
Sidney Blumenthal. The Guardian, 27 January 2005.

War's 'Hidden Cost' Called Heavy
Bryan Bender. Boston Globe, 14 January 2005.

It Is Up to You and Me
David Hackworth. Military.com, 05 January 2005.

For Army, a Clash Over Supply, Demand
Ross Kerber. Boston Globe, 30 December 2004.

'Hilbilly Armor'
Michael Hirsh, John Barry and Babak Dehghanpisheh. Newsweek, 20 December 2004.

US Army Plagued by Desertion and Plunging Morale
Elaine Monaghan. Times London, 10 December 2004.

For Army, It's Operation Stretch
Ann Scott Tyson. Christian Science Monitor, 09 December 2004.

A Matter of Force--and Fairness
Michael E. O'Hanlon. The Washington Post, 1 October 2004.

Forging the Sword: Unitmanning in the US Army
Pat Towell. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment, October 2004.

U.S. Military Is Stretched Too Thin, Defense Board Warns
Mark Mazzetti. Los Angles Times, 30 September 2004. Posted on the Fairuse website.

DoD Official Roster of all National Guard and Reserve personnel currently mobilized
Department of Defense, 29 September 2004 (.pdf file).

Destroying The National Guard
William Lind. AntiWar.com, 25 September 2004.

Guard Unit to Deploy from Lockdown to War Zone
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 19 September 2004.

Army Learns to Live in State of High Anxiety
James Kitfield. Government Executive, 17 September 2004.

Lawrence J. Korb, Testimony
Congressional Overseas Basing Commission, 02 September 2004.

The Thin Green Line
Andrew F. Krepinevich. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment, August 2004 (.pdf file).

U.S. Army Changed by Iraq, but for Better or Worse?
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 06 July 2004.

Hollow Force: Has Iraq stretched the U.S. military to its breaking point?
Phillip Carter. Slate, 23 April 2004.

Military Readiness Likely to Emerge Again as Campaign Issue
Winslow T. Wheeler. Army Times, 22 March 2004.

The Hollow Army
James Fallows. The Atlantic, March 2004.

Underwhelming Force
Thomas Donnelly. The Weekly Standard, 17 November 2003.

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