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Earlier Articles on the Costs of the New Wars for the Armed Forces

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ARCHIVES
1. Field conditions
2. Morale
3. Casualties and health
4. Deployments and rotations
5. Force size and troop levels
6. Force protection
7. Equipment
8. Recruitment and retention
9. Community and families
10. Stability operations
11. Military reform and restructure
12. Overviews

1. Field Conditions

Why Some U.S. Soldiers Feel at Home in Iraq
Lawrence Kaplan. Slate.com, 26 December 2007.

'Not Us. We're Not Going.'
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 08 December 2007.

To Adhamiya and Back
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 26 November 2007.

Part Prison, Part Holiday Camp
David Smith. The Guardian, 20 November 2007.

Non-Combat Injuries, Illnesses are No. 1 Hazard in Iraq
Jay Price. McClatchy Newspapers, 30 October 2007.

Army Experts Study Increase in Non-Combat Deaths in Iraq
Agence France-Presse, 16 October 2007.

The Real Iraq We Knew
12 Former Army Captains. Washington Post, 16 October 2007.

Mattis: U.S. Units Arrive in Iraq Barely Ready
William H. McMichael. Defense News, 01 October 2007.

South of Baghdad, U.S. Troops Find Fatigue, Frustration
Chris Collins. McClatchy Newspapers, 30 August 2007.

Fatigue Cripples U.S. Army in Iraq
Peter Beaumont. The Sunday Observer, 12 August 2007.

The Pentagon Sends Messengers of Apocalypse to Convert Soldiers in Iraq
Max Blumenthal. The Nation, 08 August 2007. Posted on the AlterNet website.

It's Easy for Soldiers to Score Heroin in Afghanistan
Shaun McCanna. Salon.com, 07 August 2007.

'The Carnage, the Blown-Up Bodies I Saw ... Why? What Was This For?'
Chris Hedges and Lailia al-Arian. The Guardian, 13 January 2007.

Fattening Menus For Troops in Iraq
Molly Hennessy-Fisk. Los Angeles Times, 09 July 2007.

A Culture of Atrocity: U.S. Troops Feel the Effect of Prolonged Combat
Chris Hedges, Truthdig, 19 June 2007.

Army Report Backs Upgrades in Combat Medical Units
Bob Brewin. Government Executive Magazine, 31 May 2007.

Army Trains Soldiers for Wartime Interviews
Erik Slavin. Stars and Stripes, 01 June 2007.

Troops in Iraq Fight Fear and Boredom
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 30 May 2007.

One-Third of Troops in Iraq Support Torture, Majority Condone Mistreating Innocent Civilians
Winslow Wheeler. AlterNet, 24 May 2007. (See report below dated 06 May 2007).

More Hadithas Are Likely With Stressed Military
Cynthia Tucker. Common Dreams, 14 May 2007.

Stress on Troops Adds to U.S. Hurdles in Iraq
Benedict Carey. The New York Times, 06 May 2007. (See report below).

Mental Health Advisory Team IV Final Report
Office of the Surgeon, Multinational Force-Iraq and Office of the Surgeon General, US Army Medical Comman, 17 November 2006 (.pdf file). Posted on 06 May 2007.

The Women's War
Sara Corbett. The New York Times Magazine, 18 March 2007.

War and Liquor a Perilous Mix for U.S. Troops
Paul von Zielbauer. The New York Times, 13 March 2007.

Reports Show Increase in Gang-Related Crimes
Leo Shane III. Stars and Stripes, 08 February 2007. (See reports below).

Gang-Related Activity in the US Armed Forces Increasing
FBI National Gang Intelligence Center, 12 January 2007. Posted on 08 February 2007 (.pdf file).

A Review of Gang Activity Affecting the Army
US Army Criminal Investigation Command, 01 December 2006. Posted on 08 February 2007 (.pdf file).

Theater of War: Online Videos Show Troops' View of Iraq
Christopher Griffin. Armed Forces Journal, 06 February 2007.

Facing Up to the Ground Truth in Iraq
Don Hazen. AlterNet, 18 September 2006.

How to Survive the First 100 Days in Theater; Troops Tell
Gina Cavallaro. Army Times, 17 August 2006.

Troops Do Battle In, and Against, Searing Heat
Rick Jervis. USA Today, 08 August 2006.

Sorting Out Life as Muslims and Marines
Andrew Elliott. The New York Times, 07 August 2006.

Reservists Shoulder Heavy Burden in Iraq
Antonio Castaneda. The Associated Press, 27 June 2006. Posted on the Boston Globe website.

CU @ The FOB: How the Forward Operating Base is Changing the Life of Combat Soldiers
Leonard Wong and Stephen Gerras. Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, March 2006 (.pdf file).

The Fear That Kills
Marjorie Cohn. Truthout.org, 31 January 2006. Posted on the AlterNet website.

U.S. Curbs Soldiers' Blogs
Joseph Mallia. Newsday, 02 January 2006.

'Semper Fit' on Home Front Only
Tony Perry. Los Angeles Times, 28 December 2005.

USO Cheers Troops but Iraq Gigs Tough to Book
Martin Kasindorf and Steve Komarow. USA Today, 23 December 2005.

Operation Christmas Cheer
Susanna Schrobsdorff. Newsweek, 14 December 2005.

A Unit's Fitful Year at War
Steve Fainaru. Washington Post, 13 December 2005.

Marines' Thanksgiving Wish: 'Hot Chow'
Jill Carrol. The Christian Science Monitor, 23 November 2005.

Mississippi Guardsmen in Iraq Refused Leave Time
Washington Post, 11 September 2005. Posted on the Information Clearing House website.

Army Battles to Rebuild Local Services
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 23 February 2005. Posted on the Outside the Beltway website.

Soldier One Moment, Peacekeeper the Next
Nicholas Blandford. Christian Science Monitor, 05 March 2004.


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2. Morale

Suicide by Guard, Reserve Troops Studied
The Associated Press, 12 February 2008.

Soldier Suicides at Record Level
Dana Priest. Washington Post, 31 January 2008.

Troops Felled By a 'Trust Gap'
Mark Perry. Asia Times, 24 January 2008.

A Salvo at the White House
Mark Perry. Asia Times, 23 January 2008.

Military Times Polls
2007 Polls of the U.S. Military conducted by the Military Times. Posted on 14 January 2008.

The Lessons of Iraq
Erik Swabb. Wall Street Journal, 14 January 2008.

Suspected Army Suicides Set Record
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 13 December 2007.

Dulce et Decorum
George Packer. The New Yorker, 07 December 2007.

Army Desertion Rate Up 80 Pct. Since '03
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 17 November 2007.

'I Don't Think This Place Is Worth Another Soldier's Life'
Joshua Partlow. Washington Post, 27 October 2007.

Salute and Disobey?
Richard B. Myers and Richard H. Kohn, Mackubin Thomas Owens, Lawrence J. Korb, and Michael C. Desch. Foreign Affairs, September/October 2007.

Why I Want to Keep Fighting in Iraq
Chris Brady. The Christian Science Monitor, 25 September 2007.

Troop Blogs Show Increasing Criticism of War
Robert Weller. The Associated Press, 09 September 2007. Posted on the Air Force Times website.

Active-Duty US Troops Become Outspoken Critics of Iraq War
Brad Knickerbocker. The Christian Science Monitor, 29 August 2007.

Challenging the Generals
Fred Kaplan. The New York Times Magazine, 26 August 2007.

GIs' Morale Dips as Iraq War Drags On
Tina Susman. Los Angeles Times, 25 August 2007.

The War as We Saw It
Buddhika Jayamaha et al. The New York Times, 19 August 2007.

Army Suicides Highest in 26 Years
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 16 August 2007.

Why Isn't the Press on a Suicide Watch?
Greg Mitchell. Editor & Publisher, 13 August 2007.

The Few, The Proud, The Shattered
Kristen Hinman. River Front Times, 08 August 2007.

Stranded By the 'Surge'
Mark Tran. The Guardian, 26 July 2007.

Does the Bush Administration Support the Troops? Yes, Like a Noose Supports a Hanging Man!
Walter C. Uhler. HuffingtonPost.com, 16 July 2007.

It's Our Cage, Too
Charles C. Krulak and Joseph P. Hoar. Washington Post, 17 May 2007.

Iraq Veteran Wins Blog Prize as U.S. Military Cuts Web Access
Ed Pilkington. The Guardian, 15 May 2007.

A Casualty Of War: MySpace
Alan Sipress and Sam Diaz. Washington Post, 15 May 2007.

U.S. Army Posting to YouTube
Agence France Presse, 09 May 2007.

Troops at Odds With Ethics Standards: Army Also Finds More Deployment Means More Mental Illness
Thomas E. Ricks and Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 05 May 2007.

Military Report Shows Ethics of Troops in Iraq
Rick Rogers. San Diego Union-Tribune, 03 May 2007.

Soldier Injured in Afghanistan Seeks Renewal in Iraq Mission
Bill Murphy, Jr. Washington Post, 08 April 2007.

Have You No Sense of Decency?
Col. Dan Smith. Defense and the National Interest, 05 April 2007.

The Costs to Those Who Soldier On
Anthony Lake. The Boston Globe, 26 January 2007.

Postponed Sacrifices
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 20 January 2007.

Troops Add their Voices to Chorus Calling for Reversal of Iraq Policy
Renee Schoof. McClatchy Newspapers, 16 January 2007.

Why They Fight -- From Within
Linton Weeks. Washington Post, 16 January 2007.

Poll: More Troops Unhappy with Bush's Course in Iraq
Robert Hodierne. Army Times, 29 December 2006.

Broken Army, Broken Empire
Pat Buchanan. Antiwar.com, 20 December 2006.

War Resister Considers Himself a Soldier as He Builds New Life
Carolyn Thompson. The Associated Press, 11 December 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Time to Fix What's Broken
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 20 November 2006.

Long, Repeated Tours In Iraq, Afghanistan Taking Mental Toll On Soldiers
Anne Usher. Cox News Service, 16 November 2006.

America Becomes Hostage to Iraq
Richard Gwyn. Toronto Star, 14 November 2006. Posted on the Common Deams website.

At Dusty Outpost in Iraq, Cake Is Cut for Marines Young and Not So Young
C.J. Chivers. The New York Times, 11 November 2006.

When Soldiers Fall, Grief Binds a Unit's 2 Worlds
Michael Luo and Michael Wilson. The New York Times, 10 November 2006.

Hundreds of U.S. Soldiers Call for Iraq Withdrawal in Petition
Agence France-Presse, 06 November 2006.

Exiting Iraq, But Expecting to Return
Tom A. Peter. The Christian Science Monitor, 06 November 2006.

Revealed: U.S. Soldier Killed Herself After Objecting to Interrogation Techniques
Greg Mitchell. Editor & Publisher, 01 November 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Grass-Roots Group of Troops Petitions Congress for Pullout From Iraq
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 25 October 2006.

Military Honors for a Changing Front
Josh White. Washington Post, 18 October 2006.

The Growing Iraq Resistance Movement in the U.S. Military
Peter Laufer. AlterNet, 30 September 2006.

Revolt of the Generals
Richard J. Whalen. The Nation, 28 September 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Activation and the Earnings of Reservists
David S. Loughran, Jacob Alex Klerman and Craig Martin. RAND, September 2006 (.pdf file).

A Broken, De-Humanized Military in Iraq
Dahr Jamail. Truthout, 26 September 2006.

Retired Army Two-Stars Say Rumsfeld Must Go
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 25 September 2006. (See testimony below).

The Road to Disillusionment
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 20 September 2006.

A Soldier Maimed by War Now Questions the Mission
Brian MacQarrie. The Boston Globe, 02 August 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Troops in Iraq Counting Down the Days Until Home Leave
Rebecca Santana. The Associated Press, 30 July 2006. Posted on the Contra Costa Times website.

What Happens When the Horror of Iraq Become Too Much For a Soldier to Bear?
Neil Makay. The Scotsman, 18 June 2006.

Killing of Civilians in Iraq Highlights Stress On Troops
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 04 June 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

New Veterans Fear Repeat of Vietnam
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 30 May 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Army Suicides Up Since Iraq War
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 22 May 2006. Posted on the Honolulu Advertiser website.

Support Our Troops, Anybody?
Dahr Jamail. Truthout, 17 May 2006.

U.S. Army Suicides Reach Highest Level Since 1993
The Associated Press, 22 April 2006. Posted on the Toronto Star website.

Former U.S. Soldiers on the Personal Cost of War in Iraq
Newsnight, BBC News, 29 March 2006. Posted on the Information Clearing House website (video file).

Desire to 'Serve My Country' Cited by Volunteers for Duty in Iraq
Shawn Dorman. Foreign Service Journal, March 2006. Excerpt posted on the Washington Post website on 23 March 2006.

Troubled Soldiers Turn to Chaplains For Help
Patrik Jonsson. The Christian Science Monitor, 08 March 2006.

U.S. Troops in Iraq: 72% Say End War in 2006
Le Moyne College/Zogby Poll, 28 February 2006.

Early Results on Activations and the Earnings of Reservists
Jacob Alex Klerman, David S. Loughran and Craig Martin. RAND, 25 January 2006 (.pdf file).

War Vets Ready for New Battle
Andrea Stone. USA Today, 23 January 2006.

An Army Death, and a Family Left In the Dark
Josh White. Washington Post, 17 January 2006.

For Returning Unit in Iraq, a Battle with Doubts
Thanassis Cambanis. Boston Globe, 08 January 2006.

Murtha Says He's Not to Blame
The Associated Press, 06 January 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Military Times Poll Finds High Morale, But Less Support for Bush, War Effort
Gordon Trowbridge. Military Times, 03 January 2006.

Iraq, Afghanistan and President Bush - Poll Data
Military Times Poll, 03 January 2006.

Morale - Poll Data
Military Times Poll, 03 January 2006.

Only One Medal of Honor Given in Iraq, Afghan Wars
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 27 December 2005.

The Iraq Story: How Troops See It
Mark Sappenfield. The Christian Science Monitor, 28 November 2005.

War's Strain Wearing on Troops
USA Today, 25 November 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

Dread Takes a Toll on GIs in Iraq
Louise Roug. Los Angeles Times, 22 November 2005.

Army is Broken and in Need of Repair
Joseph L. Galloway. Knight-Ridder, 12 October 2005.

Army Not Punishing Reservists Who Won't Go To War
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 03 October 2005.

Military Cracking Down on Iraq Soldier Blogs
Jonathan Finer. Washington Post, 14 August 2005. Posted on the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette website.

Changing Role of National Guard Takes Toll On Its Citizen Soldiers
Ron Harris. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 01 August 2005.

On Farthest U.S. Shores, Iraq Is a Way to a Dream
James Brooke. New York Times, 31 July 2005.

For Combat-Weary Marines, Each Stint Adds to the Strain
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 28 July 2005.

Part-Time Warriors, Fully Committed
Kirk Semple. New York Times, 14 February 2005.

Guardsmen Say They're Facing Iraq Ill-Trained
Scott Gold. Los Angeles Times, 25 November 2004. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Platoon Defies Orders in Iraq
Jeremy Hudson. The Clarion-Ledger, 15 October 2004. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Stretched Thin, Lied To and Mistreated
Christian Parenti. The Nation, 03 October 2003. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Reservists say they remain in Iraq with no mission
Bill Burke. The Virginian-Pilot, 14 September 2003.

For U.S. Soldiers in Iraq, Long Haul Grows Longer
John Hendren. Los Angeles Times, 16 July 2003 (.pdf file).

Troop Morale in Iraq Hits 'Rock Bottom'
Ann Scott Tyson. Christian Science Monitor, 07 July 2003.


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3. Casualties and Health

Army Reports Alarming Spike in Suicides Last Month
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 05 February 2009.

"A Different Kind of Enemy"
Brett Schwartz. Washington Prism, 13 June 2008.

Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery
Terri Tanielian and Lisa H. Jaycox, eds. RAND, 17 April 2008 (.pdf file).

Iraq's 100-Year Mortgage
Linda J. Bilmes. Foreign Policy, March/April 2008.

Military Doctors Withholding Treatment from Soldiers with Mental Health Problems
Maggie Mahar. AlterNet, 27 February 2008.

333,000 US Casualties: Are They Covered?
Maya Schenwar. Truthout, 14 February 2008.

Army Probes Spate of Accidental Drug Overdoses
The Associated Press, 07 February 2008.

Vietnam Veterans Help Returning Iraq Soldiers Deal with Shocks of War
Jennifer Miller. The Christian Science Monitor, 30 January 2008.

In More Cases, Combat Trauma Is Taking the Stand
Deborah Sontag and Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 27 January 2008.

Ailing GIs Deployed to War Zones
Erin Emery. The Denver Post, 17 January 2008.

MoD Reveals Scale of Brain Injuries Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans
Matthew Taylor. The Guardian, 16 January 2008.

Across America, Deadly Echoes of Foreign Battles
Deborah Sontag and Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 13 January 2008.

Harsh Treatment for Marines Who Use Drugs
ABC News, 30 November 2007.

Self-Medicating Medics
Kate McCarthy and Robert Lewis. ABC News, 27 November 2007. Posted on Military.com.

20,000 Vets' Brain Injuries Not Listed in Pentagon Tally
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 23 November 2007.

Paying for the Wars' Wounded
Col. Daniel Smith. Foreign Policy in Focus, 09 November 2007.

Iraq War Veterans Often Delay Mental Reactions
Thomas H. Maugh II. Los Angeles Times, 14 November 2007.

Suicide Epidemic Among Veterans, A CBS News Investigation Uncovers A Suicide Rate For Veterans Twice That Of Other Americans
Armen Keteyian. CBS News, 13 November 2007.

Rescue Operation Aims to Save a Wounded Warrior
Luis Sinco. Los Angeles Times, 12 November 2007.

Physicians Predict Veterans' Healthcare Costs Will Top $650 Billion
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 09 November 2007.

How Dangerous is the Iraq War?
Frank Greve. McClatchy Newspapers, 09 November 2007.

Troops Cheat on Brain-Injury Tests to Stay with Units
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 06 November 2007.

An Aggressive Surgeon
Alex Berenson. The New York Times, 06 November 2007.

Undiagnosed Brain Injury - the Hidden Legacy of Iraq
Matthew Taylor and Esther Addley. The Guardian, 27 October 2007.

Wounded Troops Overwhelm Care
Brad Knickerbocker. The Christian Science Monitor, 22 October 2007.

Projecting the Costs to Care for Veterans of U.S. Military Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan
Matthew S. Goldberg . Congressional Budget Office, 17 October 2007.

Army Experts Study Increase in Non-Combat Deaths in Iraq
Agence France-Presse, 16 October 2007.

Report Says Fixes Slow To Come at Walter Reed
Steve Vogel. Washington Post, 27 September 2007. (See report below).

DOD and VA: Preliminary Observations on Efforts to Improve Health Care and Disability Evaluations for Returning Servicemembers
John H. Pendleton and Daniel Berton. Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 26 September 2007 (.pdf file).

Scientists: Brain Injuries from War Worse than Thought
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 23 September 2007.

VA Studies: PTSD Care Inconsistent
Chris Adams. McClatchy Newspapers, 16 September 2007.

Federal Government Taps Ancient Healing Methods to Treat Native American Soldiers
Jennifer Miller. The Christian Science Monitor, 13 September 2007.

Thousands of GIs Cope With Brain Damage
Marilynn Marchione. The Associated Press, 10 September 2007.

Mental Health Advisory Team IV Information
Army Medical Department, Office of the Surgeon General. (Resource Site)

Army Colonel Draws Fire for Stress Study
Alison Young. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 03 September 2007.

Most Stress Cases Missed
Lisa Chedekel. Hartford Courant, 06 August 2007.

At Walter Reed, a New Approach
Steve Vogel. Washington Post, 31 July 2007.

Overhaul Urged in Care for Soldiers
Steve Vogel. Washington Post, 26 July 2007. (See report below).

Serve, Support, Simplify
Report of the President's Commission on Care for America's Returning Wounded Warriors, 26 July 2007 (.pdf file).

Veterans Sue VA Over Delays in Care
Hope Yen. The Associated Press, 24 July 2007.

Army to Train Soldiers About Brain Injuries, Other Mental Health Concerns
Josh White. Washington Post, 18 July 2007.

Battlefield Breakdown: The Full Price of War in Iraq
John King. CNN, 27 June 2007.

U.S. Struggles with Breadth, Depth of War Injuries
CNN.com, 25 June 2007.

Experts: Repeat Tours Threaten Mental Health
Robert Weller. The Associated Press, 22 June 2007.

Male U.S. Veterans More Likely to Commit Suicide
Steven Reinberg. Washington Post, 12 June 2007.

Therapists for Soldiers Scarce
Kimberly Hefling. The Associated Press, 11 June 2007.

Veterans' Benefits System Needs Overhaul, Panel Says
Erik Eckholm. The New York Times, 08 June 2007.

Study: Half of War Vets Have Psych Issues
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 04 June 2007.

Hearing on Mental Health Problems Confronting Soldiers Returning from Iraq, Afghanistan
House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 24 May 2007.

Stress on Troops Adds to U.S. Hurdles in Iraq
Benedict Carey. The New York Times, 06 May 2007. (See report below).

Mental Health Advisory Team IV Final Report
Office of the Surgeon, Multinational Force-Iraq and Office of the Surgeon General, US Army Medical Comman, 17 November 2006 (.pdf file). Posted on 06 May 2007.

Spread of Disease Tied to U.S. Combat Deployments
John Donnelly. The Boston Globe, 07 May 2007.

Troops at Odds With Ethics Standards: Army Also Finds More Deployment Means More Mental Illness
Thomas E. Ricks and Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 05 May 2007.

Military Report Shows Ethics of Troops in Iraq
Rick Rogers. San Diego Union-Tribune, 03 May 2007.

Mental Health Worsens as Deployments Lengthen
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 26 April 2007.

The Pentagon's Chronic Neglect of Iraq Vets
Mark Benjamin. Salon.com, 25 April 2007.

Iraq War Brain Trauma Victims Turn to Private Care
Kim Dixon. Reuters, 23 April 2007.

Treating War's 'Silent Injury'
Tony Perry. Los Angeles Times, 11 April 2007.

A Shock Wave of Brain Injuries
Ronald Glasser. Washington Post, 08 April 2007.

Disuse of System Is Cited in Gaps in Soldiers' Care
Ian Urbina and Ron Nixon. The New York Times, 30 March 2007.

Injured Soldiers in Limbo
Michael Gilbert. The News Tribune, 25 March 2007.

Falling Through the Cracks
Karen Rutzick. Government Executive Magazine, 15 March 2007.

For War's Gravely Injured, Challenge to Find Care
Deborah Sontag and Lizette Alvarez. The New York Times, 12 March 2007.

A Quarter of US War Vets Diagnosed With Mental Disorder: Study
Agence France Presse, 12 March 2007.

U.S. Army Hospital Scandal Claims Third Scalp
Mark Tran. The Guardian, 12 January 2007.

The Army is Ordering Injured Troops to Go to Iraq
Mark Benjamin. Salon.com, 11 March 2007.

Troops Deserve Decent Treatment
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 07 March 2007.

'I Failed,' Says Fired Walter Reed General
Johanna Neuman. Los Angeles Times, 05 March 2007.

'It Is Just Not Walter Reed'
Anne Hull and Dana Priest. Washington Post, 05 March 2007.

Defense Secretary Sends Stern Message About Accountability
Thomas E. Ricks and Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 03 March 2007.

Army Fires Commander of Walter Reed
Steve Vogel and William Branigin. Washington Post, 02 March 2007.

Army Denies Patients Face Daily Inspections
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 01 March 2007.

Walter Reed Patients Told to Keep Quiet
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 28 February 2007.

Report: Mental Health System Overwhelmed
Seth Borenstein. The Associated Press, 27 February 2007. (See report below).

The Psychological Needs of U.S. Military Service Members and Their Families
American Psychological Association, February 2007 (.pdf file).

No Way to Treat Our Wounded
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 23 February 2007.

Army is Holding Back on Rating Troops' Disabilities to Hold Down Costs, Critics Say
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 22 February 2007.

No Way to Treat Our Veterans
Center for American Progress, 20 February 2007.

I Miss Iraq. I Miss My Gun. I Miss My War.
Brian Mockenhaupt. Esquire, 20 February 2007.

Walter Reed Army Medical Center Begins Repairs on Building 18
Anne Hull and Dana Priest. Washington Post, 18 February 2007.

The Hotel Aftermath
Anne Hull and Dana Priest. Washington Post, 19 February 2007.

Soldiers Face Neglect, Frustration At Army's Top Medical Facility
Anne Hull and Dana Priest. Washington Post, 18 February 2007.

VA Comes Up Short for Iraq Vets
Chris Adams. McClatchy Newspapers, 11 February 2007.

Told to Wait, a Marine Dies
Charles M. Sennott. The Boston Globe, 11 February 2007.

U.S. Reconfigures the Way Casualty Totals Are Given
Denise Grady. The New York Times, 02 February 2007.

Agency Says Higher Casualty Total Was Posted in Error
Denise Grady. The New York Times, 30 January 2007.

Injury Count in Iraq Disputed
Stephen Koff. The Cleveland Plain Dealer, 28 January 2007.

The Forgotten American Dead
Tom Engelhardt. TomDispatch, 26 January 2007.

The Invisible Enemy in Iraq
Steve Silberman. Wired News, 22 January 2007.

Living With the Scars of War
John Koopman. San Francisco Chronicle, 14 January 2007.

Sick, Literally, of Fighting in Iraq
Aaron Glantz. Inter Press Service, 12 January 2007.

Soldiers Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan: The Long-term Costs of Providing Veterans Medical Care and Disability Benefits
Linda Bilmes. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, January 2007 (.pdf file).

The Battle of Iraq's Wounded
Linda Bilmes. Los Angeles Times, 05 January 2007.

PTSD Linked to More Sick Call Visits, Missed Workdays
Kelly Kennedy. Army Times, 05 January 2007.

Medical Teams Saving More Troops
Rowan Scarborough. The Washington Times, 05 January 2007.

Iraq Vets Come Home Physically, Mentally Butchered
Aaron Glantz. AntiWar.com, 04 January 2007.

War Trauma Tied to Heart Attacks
Carla K. Johnson. The Associated Press, 02 January 2007.

Relentless Toll to U.S. Troops of Roadside Bombs
Brad Knickerbocker. The Christian Science Monitor, 02 January 2007.

Detailed Breakdown of U.S. Deaths in Iraq -- As Official Toll Hits 3000
Editor & Publisher, 31 December 2006.

Repeat Iraq Tours Raise Risk of PTSD, Army Finds
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 20 December 2006.

Broken By War, And Ordered Back
Lisa Chedekel. Hartford Courant, 10 December 2006.

Women Veterans Cope with Emotional Wounds
The Associated Press, 03 December 2006. Posted on the Washington Post website.

Rural America Suffering High Death Toll in Iraq, Afghanistan
Aaron Glantz. AntiWar.com, 29 November 2006. (See report below).

U.S. Rural Soldiers Account for a Disproportionately High Share of Casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan
William O'Hare and Bill Bishop. Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire, Fall 2006 (.pdf file).

Vets Skeptical VA Can Cope with Iraq War Wave
Gigi Stone. ABC News, 25 November 2006.

Long, Repeated Tours In Iraq, Afghanistan Taking Mental Toll On Soldiers
Anne Usher. Cox News Service, 16 November 2006.

She Survived Iraq - Then Shot Herself at Home
Greg Mitchell. Editor and Publisher, 13 November 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Does the Military Send Sick Soldiers to War?
Nina Berman. AlterNet, 03 November 2006.

'Welcome to Hell': The War After the War
Thomas Farragher. The Boston Globe, 29 October 2006.

Mind Games, Part 1: The Things They Carry
Nancy Goldstein. Raw Story, 24 October 2006.

The Polytrauma of War: Severity of Injuries Requires New Forms of Rehabilitation
Jorg Blech. Der Spiegel, 23 October 2006.

Troops With Stress Disorders Being Redeployed
CBS News, 19 October 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Data Suggests Vast Costs Loom in Disability Claims
Scott Shane. The New York Times, 11 October 2006.

Veterans' Group: More Attention to Eye Injuries Needed
Rick Maze. Army Times, 05 October 2006.

Thousands of Soldiers Have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Will They Get the Help they Need?
Betsy Streisand. U.S. News and World Report, 01 October 2006.

More War Veterans Suffering From Stress
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 23 September 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

GAO: VA Underestimated Costs for War Veterans' Needs
Jennifer Talhelm. The Associated Press, 21 September 2006. Posted on the Army Times website. (See report below).

VA Health Care: Budget Formulation and Reporting on Budget Execution Need Improvement
Government Accountability Office, 20 September 2006 (.pdf file).

Deployment To Iraq War Associated With Increased Risk For Adverse Neuropsychological Effects
Science Daily, 20 August 2006.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Plaguing U.S. Troops
Donna St. George. Washington Post, 20 August 2006.

Study Links Military Duty in Iraq to Lapse in Some Mental Ability
Benedict Carey. The New York Times, 02 August 2006.

Injured in Iraq, a Soldier Reclaims His Independence
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 04 July 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Ultrasound to Treat War Wounds
Paul Rincon. BBC News, 28 June 2006.

Iraq War May Add Stress for Past Vets
Donna St. George. Washington Post, 20 June 2006.

Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers
Jonathan Finer. Washington Post, 08 June 2006.

Troops Risk Undetected Brain Injury
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 06 June 2006.

More on Wounded Soldier Pay
Lawrence Korb and Peter Ogden. Center for Defense Information, 02 June 2006.

Military Members Can Test Mental Health Online
David Crary. The Associated Press, 31 May 2006. Posted on the Seattle Post-Intelligencer website.

The Iraq War -- On Drugs
Terry J. Allen. In These Times, 29 May 2006.

Female Vets Come Home to War on Trauma
Pamela Burke. Women's ENews, 28 May 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Marines Wounded in Iraq Heal Together
Alex Quade. CNN, 26 May 2006.

Study Sheds New Light on Gulf War Syndrome
Sarah Boseley. The Guardian, 16 May 2006.

Army: HBO Documentary Could Trigger Stress Disorder
Barbara Starr. CNN News, 15 May 2006.

Mentally Unfit, Forced To Fight
Lisa Chedekel and Matthew Kauffman. The Hartford Courant, 14 May 2006.

GAO: Few Troops Are Treated for Disorder
Shankar Vedantam. Washington Post, 11 May 2006. (See report below).

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: DOD Needs to Identify The Factors Its Providers Use to Make Mental Health Evaluation Reforms for Servicemembers
Government Accountability Office, 11 May 2006 (.pdf file).

Brain Injuries Common for Iraq War Vets
Robert Bazell. NBC News, 25 April 2006.

Limbs Lost to Enemy Fire, Women Forge a New Reality
Donna St. George. Washington Post, 18 April 2006.

Nearly 10 Percent of Iraq Vets Screen Positive for PTSD
Aaron Levin. Psychiatric News, 07 April 2006.

The Journey Through Trauma
David Zucchino. Los Angeles Times, 03 April 2006.

Iraq Leaves Veteran in Personal Fog of War
The Associated Press, 19 March 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Some Troops Headed Back to Iraq Are Mentally Ill
Rick Rogers. San Diego Union-Tribune, 19 March 2006.

Rates of Hearing Loss Climbing for Troops
Richard Whittle. The Dallas Morning News, 08 March 2006.

Veterans Report Mental Distress
Shankar Vedantam. Washington Post, 01 March 2006.

Soldiers' Hearing Loss Quietly Taking Big Toll
Bruce Taylor Seeman. Newhouse News Service, 22 February 2006. Posted on the Seattle Times website.

Military Vehicles, and Lives, Take a Beating in Iraq
Joe Galloway. Salt Lake Tribune, 15 February 2006.

Robots Are Saving American Lives in Iraq and Afghanistan
Robert S. Boyd. Knight Ridder Newspapers, 13 February 2006.

Veteran Medics Help Reduce Iraq Fatalities
Chris Kraul. Los Angeles Times, 12 February 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Bone Condition Hampers Soldiers' Recovery
Liz Szabo. USA Today, 12 February 2006.

Soldiers Face Debilitating Diseases
NBC News, 08 February 2006.

An American Tragedy - The Plight of the U.S. War Wounded
James Cogan. Axis of Logic, 07 February 2006.

The Scars of War
Cathy Booth Thomas. Time Magazine, 05 February 2006.

Red Tape Often Awaits Disabled Servicemembers
Tom Philpott. Stars and Stripes, 02 February 2006.

A Different Operation For U.S. Doctors in Iraq
Thomas E. Ricks. Washington Post, 01 February 2006.

Hole in the Future
Robert C. Koehler. Uruknet.info, 01 February 2006.

Wounded Soldiers Told They Owe Money to Army
Brian Ross. ABC News, 31 January 2006.

A New Kind of Care in a New Era of Casualties
Erik Eckholm. The New York Times, 31 January 2006.

Mental Disorders Affect Third of Iraq Vets
Olga Pierce. United Press International, 27 January 2006. Posted on the Space War website.

Struggling Back From War's Once-Deadly Wounds
Denise Grady. The New York Times, 22 January 2006.

The Forgotten Wounded of Iraq
Ron Kovic. TruthDig, 18 January 2006.

Pill Could Erase PTSD Memories
Marilynn Marchione. The Associated Press, 16 January 2006. Posted on the Marine Corps Times website.

The Stress of Guarding the Couch
Jeffrey Gettleman. The New York Times, 15 January 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Famous Face, Humble Heart
Jim Warren. Lexington Herald-Leader, 15 January 2006.

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[Occupation Distress Home]

Amputee Veterans Learning to Deal With Loss by Defying It
Johanna Neuman. Los Angeles Times, 09 January 2006.

Losing Their Minds
Mark Benjamin. Salon, 05 January 2006.

'Marlboro Man' in Iraq War Photo Suffers from PTSD
Editor and Publisher, 03 January 2006.

Refinements in Medical Care Help More War Wounded Survive
Steve Mraz. Stars and Stripes, 03 January 2006.

Gulf War Syndrome Persists in U.S. Troops After 10 years: Study
Agence France Presse, 29 December 2005.

Once Home, Troops Face New Battle
Vanessa Gregory and Claire Miller. Los Angeles Times, 27 December 2005.

A Mission That Ended in Inferno for 3 Women
Michael Moss. The New York Times, 20 December 2005.

Skin Ulcers Plague Men From N.C. Unit
Jay Price. The News and Observer, 19 December 2005.

A Look at U.S. Military Deaths in Iraq
The Associated Press, 12 December 2005. Posted on The Guardian website.

Wounds Unseen Prove Just as Deadly to Troops
David McLemore. The Dallas Morning News, 04 December 2005. Posted on the Denton Record-Chronicle website.

A Wounded Soldier Struggles to Adapt
Joseph Shapiro. NPR, 29 November 2005 (audio file).

Helping Troops Recover from Brain Injuries
Joseph Shapiro. NPR, 28 November 2005 (audio file).

U.S. Casualties in Iraq Climbing Again
Martin Sieff. United Press International, 28 November 2005.

A Journey That Ended in Anguish
T. Christian Miller. Los Angeles Times, 27 November 2005. Posted on the Fair Use website.

The Struggle to Gauge a War's Psychological Cost
Benedict Carey. The New York Times, 26 November 2005.

Soldiers in Iraq Carry Extra Load
Elizabeth Weise. USA Today, 20 November 2005.

Health Advocates Criticize Military; Want More Analysis of War Veterans' Illnesses
Thomas D. Williams. Hartford Courant, 17 November 2005.

Iraq War Casualties Mostly White, Working Class
Tom Bowman. Baltimore Sun, 30 October 2005.

Quarter of Dead are National Guard Troops
Russ Bynum and Elliott Minor. Associated Press, 25 October 2005. Posted on The State website.

U.S. and Coalition Casualties and Costs of War in Iraq
Anthony Cordesman. CSIS, 21 October 2005 (.pdf file).

Returning US Soldiers Face Financial, Medical Difficulties
Tom Regan. Christian Science Monitor, 18 October 2005.

Death Toll Rises for Military Reservists
Associated Press, 10 October 2005.

Returning War Wounded Strain Veterans' Services
Audrey Parente. Daytona Beach News Journal, 11 September 2005.

The Military: Walking Among the Dead
T. Trent Gegax and Evan Thomas. Newsweek, 29 August 2005. Posted on 22 August 2005.

Veterans Returning from Iraq with Problems Too Serious for Local Help
Kevin Dobbs. Demoines Register, 11 August 2005.

Talking Wounded
Peter Carlson. Washington Post, 10 August 2005.

Iraq Affecting Mental Health of Troops
John J. Lumpkin. The Associated Press, 29 July 2005. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

For Combat-Weary Marines, Each Stint Adds to the Strain
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 28 July 2005.

Army Likely to Fall Short in Recruiting, General Says
Eric Schmitt. New York Times, 24 July 2005.

Where Recruiting Runs Strongest
Mark Sappenfield. Christian Science Monitor, 19 July 2005.

Military Looking for a Few Good Medics
Michael Moran. MSNBC, 10 June 2005.

As Casualties Soar, America's Women Face Reality of Front Line
Joanna Walters. The Observer, 01 May 2005.

Traumatic Brain Injury in the War Zone
Susan Okie. New England Journal of Medicine, 19 May 2005.

Iraq Veterans' Unspoken Epidemic
Matt Frei. BBC News, 19 May 2005.

Army Takes New Approach to Post-War Emotional Care
Kate Wiltrout. Virginian-Pilot, 29 March 2005.

Trauma of Iraq War Haunting Thousands Returning Home
William M. Welch. USA Today, 28 February 2005.

Suicides in Marine Corps Rise by 29%
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 25 February 2005.

Hurt Troops Often Denied Pay, Benefits
John Hendren. Los Angeles Times, 18 February 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

Operation Iraqi Fredom (01F-11) Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT-II)
U.S Army Surgeon General, 30 January 2005. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website (.pdf file).

A Flood of Troubled Soldiers Is in the Offing, Experts Predict
Scott Shane. New York Times, 16 December 2004.

Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care
Charles W. Hoge, et al. New England Journal of Medicine, 01 July 2004.


4. Deployments and Rotations

More Troops for Iraq and Afghanistan, Defense Department Says
David Montero. The Christian Science Monitor, 26 February 2008.

Planned Troop Withdrawals Won't Bring Much Relief to U.S. Military
Nancy A. Youssef. McClatchy Newspapers, 06 February 2008.

Army Chief May Shorten Tours In Iraq, Afghanistan by Summer
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 17 January 2008.

For Marines, Iraq Becomes a Family Affair
Tony Perry. Los Angeles Times, 10 January 2008.

Army Leaders Push to Shorten Iraq Tours
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 09 December 2007.

15-Month Tours of Iraq Likely for A While
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 04 December 2007.

Haven't Gone to War? You Will
Gina Cavallaro. Army Times, 20 November 2007.

Guard Names Brigades Tapped for Deployments
Michelle Tan. Army Times, 21 October 2007.

National Guard Faces Call-Ups for 2008, '09
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 18 October 2007.

Army to Keep Extending Troops' Service
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 18 October 2007.

Study: Nearly 15,000 Went to War Without Anti-IED Training
Peter Eisler, Tom Vanden Brook and Blake Morrison. USA Today, 17 October 2007.

Army Needs Three to Four Years to Recover from Iraq Strains: Chief
Agence France Presse, 08 October 2007.

A Strategic and Moral Crisis
Interactive Graphic. Center for American Progress, 18 September 2007.

No Choice -- Withdrawal Starts in '08
Graham Allison and Kevin Ryan. Los Angeles Times, 11 September 2007.

Army Cuts Time Spent on Training
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 19 August 2007.

U.S. General Says 15-Month Army Rotations in Iraq, Afghanistan, to Continue into Next Summer
The Associated Press, 14 August 2007.

Pentagon Extends Iraq Tours for 2,200 Marines
Reuters, 19 July 2007. Posted on the Truthout website.

Worse Than the Hollow Force
Megan Scully. Air Force Magazine, July 2007.

Democrat-Led House Lays Legal Groundwork for Korea-Style Bases in Iraq
Jim Lobe. LobeLog.com, 22 June 2007.

U.S. Troops Could be in Iraq for a Decade: Commander
Jitendra Joshi. Agence France-Presse, 17 June 2007.

Many Return to War; Many Never Go
The Associated Press, 04 June 2007. Posted on Military.com.

Army Sending Soldiers Back to Iraq, Cutting 'Dwell Time'
Lisa Burgess, and John Vandiver. Stars and Stripes, 10 May 2007.

More Days Off for Repeat War Tours
Tom Philpott. Military.com, 27 April 2007.

Gates Announces Longer Tours in Iraq
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 11 April 2007.

12,000 More Guard May Go to Iraq
Jim Miklaszewski and Alex Johnson. MSNBC and NBC News, 05 April 2007.

Back to Iraq
Greg Grant. Government Executive Magazine, 01 April 2007.

Pentagon Says Funding Delay Would Affect Rotations, Training, Repairs
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 01 April 2007.

For Some G.I.'s, Less Time at Home, More in Iraq
David S. Cloud. The New York Times, 29 March 2007.

Marine Reservists Involuntarily Recalled
The Associated Press, 27 March 2007.

The Changing Complexion of Troop 'Surge' in Iraq
Gordon Lubold. Christian Science Monitor, 14 March 2007.

Beyond the Call of Duty
Lawrence Korb et al. Center for American Progress, 06 March 2007 (.pdf file).

Rushed by Bush, Troops Sent to War Without Training
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 27 February 2007.

Pentagon to Pay Troops for Lost Time at Home
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 11 January 2007.

Third Round in Iraq to Test U.S. Troops
Patrik Jonsson. The Christian Science Monitor, 09 January 2007.

Bush Policy Means Second Tours in Iraq, Military Says
Julian E. Barnes. Los Angeles Times, 08 January 2007.

U.S. Reserves Returning to Iraq
Pamela Hess. United Press International, 28 December 2006.

Paratroopers to Replace Marines on Call in Kuwait
Gina Cavallaro. Marine Corps Times, 27 December 2006.

Iraq, Afghanistan Rotations Announced
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 17 November 2006.

Possible Iraq Deployments Would Stretch Reserve Force
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 05 November 2006.

Entire Third Division May Go Back to Iraq
Sean Harder. Savannah Morning News, 01 November 2006.

U.S. Army 'Coming to End of its Rope'
Lynda Hurst. The Toronto Star, 29 September 2006.

Tour of Duty Extended for Army Unit in Iraq
Drew Brown. McClatchy Newspapers, 25 September 2006.

Tour of Duty Extended for Army Unit in Iraq
Drew Brown. McClatchy Newspapers, 25 September 2006.

Unit Makes Do as Army Strives to Plug Gaps
David S. Cloud. The New York Times, 25 September 2006.

25,000 Stateside Troops Tapped for Iraq Deployment
Jeff Schogol. Stars and Stripes, 28 July 2006.

172nd Stryker Brigade Tour Extended
Sean D. Naylor. Army Times, 27 July 2006.

U.S. May Increase Iraq Force by Delaying Departures
Will Dunham. Reuters, 26 July 2006.

Iraq Deployment Delayed as Drawdown Is Studied
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 09 May 2006.

Deployment, Stress and Intention to Stay in the Military
RAND, 2006 (.pdf file).

How Deployments Affect Service Members
James Hosek, Jennifer Kavanagh and Laura Miller. RAND, 20 December 2005 (.pdf file).

U.S. Plans Downsizing in Iraq, Afghanistan
Josh White. Washington Post, 20 December 2006.

State Dept. Considers Mandatory Iraq Tours
Paul Richter. Los Angeles Times, 18 December 2005.

Deployments Could be Canceled
Staff and Wire Reports. Army Times, 13 December 2005.

Iraq Deployment May Be Cut, Sources Say
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 08 December 2005.

Their Time's Up, But These Soldiers Are Stuck in Iraq
Hart Seely. The Syracuse Post-Standard, 20 November 2005. Posted on the Fair Use website.

How Many Have Gone to War?
Mark Benjamin. Salon.com, 12 April 2005.

Halving Duty Tour Weighed by Army
John Hendren. Los Angeles Times, 08 April 2005. Posted on the Fort Wayne Gazette website.

Amid Talk of Withdrawl, Pentagon Is Taking Steps for Longer Stay in Iraq
Eli Lake. New York Sun, 14 January 2005.

Taking the Stress Off Our Troops
P.J. Crowley. Center for American Progress, 17 August 2004.

Rotation Plan Confirms Army Is Overstressed
Robert Merriman. DefenseWatch, 04 September 2003. Posted on the Military.com website.

For U.S. Soldiers in Iraq, Long Haul Grows Longer
John Hendren. Los Angeles Times, 16 July 2003 (.pdf file).


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5. Force Size and Troop Levels

Sources: War Tours Strain US Military Readiness
Lolita Baldor. The Associated Press, 19 February 2009 (.pdf file).

Military Readiness: Joint Policy Needed to Better Manage the Training and Use of Certain Forces to Meet Operational Demands
Report to the Senate Committee on Armed Services and House Committee on Armed Services. Government Accountability Office, May 2008 (.pdf file).

The U.S. Military Index
Foreign Policy, March/April 2008.

US Ground Forces: More Money Needed
Anne Flaherty. The Associated Press, 14 February 2008.

Impact of Current Operations and Actions Needed to Rebuild Readiness of U.S. Ground Forces
Sharon L. Pickup. Testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, 14 February 2008 (.pdf file).

War Demands Strain US Military Readiness
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 08 February 2008.

Mass. Guard Lacks Vital Resources
Bryan Bender. The Boston Globe, 01 February 2008.

Testimony on the State of the United States Army
Gen. George W. Casey, Jr. Testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee, 15 November 2007 (.pdf file).

Army Leaders Plan to Add 74,000 Soldiers by 2010
The Associated Press, 10 October 2007.

Gates to Approve Expansion of Army
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 28 September 2007.

Top General Fears War Strain on National Guard
Andrew O. Selsky. The Associated Press, 27 August 2007.

For Stretched Army, Extending Iraq Buildup Would be Tough
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 20 August 2007.

US is Stretched Too Thin, Top General Worries
Donald Kirk. Asia Times, 17 August 2007.

Governors Say War Has Gutted Guard
Kirsten Scharnberg. The Chicago Tribune, 13 May 2007.

Is the Army Bleeding Out?
Brian Gellman. Intel Dump, 08 May 2007.

For Every 1,000 Deployed...
The New York Times image, 10 December 2006. Posted on 02 May 2007.

Bush's Strategy Demands the Draft
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 24 April 2007.

Stressed Army Makes U.S. Vulnerable - Retired General
Susan Cornwell. Reuters, 17 April 2007.

Breaking the Army
Jim Lobe. Inter Press Service, 12 April 2007.

A Troop Readiness Crisis
Lawrence Korb. The Boston Globe, 11 April 2007.

Letter to Defense Secretary Gates on Army Readiness
Ike Skelton. Letter to Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, 10 April 2007. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website (.pdf file).

Pentagon Considers Extended Tours for All Soldiers
Jonathan Karl. ABC News, 10 April 2007.

Pentagon Strains to Uphold Troops Levels in Iraq
Peter Spiegel and Richard Simon. Los Angeles Times, 10 April 2007.

America's Broken-Down Army
Mark Thompson. TIME Magazine, 05 April 2007.

Conway: War Diverts Corps From Other Training
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 05 April 2007.

Is U.S. Army Bent to the Breaking Point?
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 04 April 2007.

Stretched Army Sends Units Back to Iraq Early to Support Troop Increase
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 02 April 2007.

How the U.S. Army Broke in Iraq
Phillip Carter. Slate, 30 March 2007.

Five Years of Broken
Joe Galloway. Military.com, 27 March 2007.

Gates Warns of Army Stress Without Emergency Funds
Kristin Roberts. Reuters, 22 March 2007.

Army Brigade Finds Itself Stretched Thin
David S. Cloud. New York Times, 20 March 2007.

Breaking Ranks
Christopher Preble. The American Conservative, 12 March 2007.

Pentagon Will Likely Shift Funds to Pay For More Troops
James Rosen and Drew Brown. McClatchy Newspapers. 06 March 2007.

Iraq Troop Boost Erodes Readiness, General Says
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 16 February 2007.

How the U.S. Army's Being Worn Down in Iraq
David Isenberg. Asia Times, 07 February 2007.

No Need to Expand U.S. Army
David C. Gompert. United Press International, 26 January 2007.

Army Increase Will Cost $70B
The Associated Press, 24 January 2007.

Breaking! Our Armed Forces
Evan Frisch. Common Dreams, 13 January 2007.

Pentagon Wants 92,000 More Troops
MSNBC, 11 January 2007.

Surge Could Push Troops to the Breaking Point
Cindy Williams. The Boston Globe, 10 January 2007.

Army Hopes Troop Buildup Won't Rob Modernization
Megan Scully. Congress Daily, 10 January 2007.

The End of an Era
David Kaiser. History Unfolding, 06 January 2007.

Former Officers Warn 'Surge' in Iraq Could Place Fatal Strain on U.S. Military
Kelley Beaucar Vlahos. Fox News, 03 January 2007.

Building a Bigger U.S. Army
Daniel Goure and Loren B. Thompson. United Press International, 27 December 2006.

Enlarging Military Poses Challenge
Anne Plummer Flaherty. The Associated Press, 20 December 2006.

Stretched Too Thin
Kevin Ryan. Washington Post, 18 December 2006.

General Says Army Will Need To Grow
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 15 December 2006.

Army, Marine Corps To Ask for More Troops
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 13 December 2006.

More Marines May Be Needed in Terror War
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 23 November 2006.

Troops With Stress Disorders Being Redeployed
CBS News, 19 October 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Iraq Troop Levels Come Into Question
Carmen Gentile. ISN Security Watch, 17 October 2006

AUSA President: Army Needs More Soldiers
Matthew Cox. The Army Times, 10 October 2006.

On Every Level, the Iraq War is Hurting America
Pat M. Holt. The Christian Science Monitor, 05 October 2006.

After 5 Years of War, U.S. Military Shows Fatigue
Will Dunham. Reuters, 05 October 2006.

Troops Polled Say Armed Forces Stretched Too Thin Overseas
Jerome L. Sherman. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 05 October 2006. (See poll below).

General: U.S. Army in Danger
Dick Foster. Rocky Mountain News, 04 October 2006.

More Troops
Frederick W. Kagan and William Kristol. The Weekly Standard, 02 October 2006. Posted on 26 September 2006.

Planning and Conduct of the War in Iraq
Maj. Gen. John Batiste, Maj. Gen. Paul D. Eaton, Col. Thomas X. Hammes. Testimony before the Democratic Policy Committee, 25 September 2006 (.pdf file).

Top Generals Hint at Army Expansion of 60,000 Troops
Jonathan Karl. ABC News, 25 September 2006 (See testimony above).

How Bush Wrecked the Army
Fred Kaplan. Slate.com, 25 September 2006.

Strained, Army Looks to Guard for More Relief
Thom Shanker and Michael E. Gordon. The New York Times, 22 September 2006.

Deployment Math Tests the Military
Peter Spiegel and Julian E. Barnes. Los Angeles Times, 21 September 2006.

Won't Deploy? Can't Deploy: There are No More Troops To Send to Iraq
Daniel Benjamin and Michèle A. Flournoy. Slate.com, 14 September 2006.

U.S. Troop Levels in Iraq Reach 147,000
Gordon Lubold. Army Times, 13 September 2006.

U.S. Forces in Iraq Number 145,000
Pauline Jelinek. The Associated Press, 07 September 2006.

Spinning the Troop Levels in Iraq
Norman Solomon. Common Dreams, 05 September 2006.

Troops Train Knowing There's a Catch
Peter Spiegel. Los Angeles Times, 24 May 2006.

Navy Fears Medical Personnel Crisis
Christopher J. Castelli. InsideDefense.com, 25 April 2006. Posted on Military.com.

U.S. Marines Say Can Keep Iraq Levels Indefinitely
Will Dunham. Reuters, 06 April 2006.

Activated Guard, Reserve Troop Numbers Dip
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 15 March 2006. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

National Guard Drained by Iraq
International Herald Tribune, 01 March 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Navy to Increase Numbers Inside Iraq
Mike Mount. CNN, 07 February 2006.

Role of Guard, Reserves to Lessen Overseas
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 07 February 2006.

Army Pledges No Cutbacks in National Guard
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 03 February 2006.

Army Forces 50,000 Soldiers into Extended Duty
Will Dunham. Reuters, 29 January 2006.

Army Sees Reductions in National Guard, Reserves
Vicki Allen. Reuters, 26 January 2006.

The U.S. Military: Under Strain and At Risk
William J. Perry et al. National Security Advisory Group, January 2006. Posted on the Democratic Party website (.pdf file).

Study: Army Stretched to Breaking Point
Robert Burns. The Associated Press, 24 January 2006.

Army to Slow Growth and Cut 6 National Guard Combat Brigades
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 19 January 2006. (See report below).

Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers
Lawrence Kapp. CRS Report for Congress, 18 January 2006 (.pdf file).

The Army, Faced With Its Limits
Fred Kaplan. The New York Times, 01 January 2006. Posted on the Fair Use website.

Long-Distance Warriors
Sally B. Donnelly. Time Magazine, 12 December 2005.

The Daunting Logistics of Withdrawal
David Isenberg. Asia Times, 09 December 2005.

Murtha Says Army Is Broken
The Associated Press, 02 December 2005. Posted on the Military.com website.

U.S. to Pull Out Most of National Guard
David Charter. The Times, UK, 01 December 2005. Posted on the Information Clearing House website.

Role in Iraq Leaves Illinois Guard Short
Ryan Keith. Associated Press, 30 November 2005. Posted on the Daily Southtown website.

Pentagon: Consensus Grows on Iraq Force Cuts
Agence France Presse, 28 November 2005. Posted on the Space War website.

3 Brigades May Be Cut in Iraq Early in 2006
Bradley Graham and Robin Wright. The Washington Post, 23 November 2005.

An Army Ready To Snap
Bob Herbert. The New York Times, 10 November 2005.

Guard Units Stretched Thin
Stephen J. Hedges. Chicago Tribune, 17 September 2005. Posted on the Fairuse website.

Stretched Thin: Army Forces for Sustained Operations
Lynn E.Davis, et. al. RAND, 13 July 2005 (.pdf file).

Pressure Grows as Pentagon Misses Deadline on Troop Levels
Bryan Bender. Boston Globe, 12 July 2005.

UK Memo Cites Plans for Troop Reductions
Glenn Frankel and Josh White. Washington Post, 11 July 2005.

Options for future UK force posture in Iraq
Policy memo by John Reid, Secretary of State, classified "Secret - UK Eyes Only, undated - probably sometime in the first half of 2005, published by the Mail on Sunday on 10 July 2005.

US Admits Forces Stretched
John Shovelan. ABC News Australia, 04 May 2005.

Myers: Iraq, Afghan Wars Strain Military
John J. Lumpkin. Associated Press, 03 May 2005. Posted on The Guardian website.

Marines From Iraq Sound Off About Want of Armor and Men
Michael Moss. New York Times, 25 April 2005. Posted on the Common Dreams website.

Halving Duty Tour Weighed by Army
John Hendren. Los Angeles Times, 08 April 2005. Posted on the Fort Wayne Gazette website.

Still Short in Iraq
Douglas Waller and Sally B. Donnelly. Time Magazine, 06 March 2005.

"Going to War with the Army You Have"
Michael Schwartz. Mother Jones, 05 March 2005.

Army Considers Extending Reserve
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 03 February 2005.

Letter to Congress on Increasing U.S. Ground Forces
Project for the New American Century, 28 January 2005.

Guard Wants to Offer $15,000 Bonuses to Entice Active- Duty Soldiers to Its Thinning Ranks
Robert Burns. Associated Press, 25 January 2005. Posted on the SignOnSanDiego website.

The Road to a Draft Goes Through an Unwilling Army
Erin Solaro. Seatle Post Intelligencer, 23 January 2005.

Army Plans To Keep Iraq Troop Level Through '06
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 25 January 2005.

As War Grinds On, U.S. Military May Face Shortage of Deployable Reserves
The Associated Press, 24 January 2005. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

Military Offers Special Perks in Bid to Retain Special Forces
Ann Scott Tyson. Christian Science Monitor, 21 January 2005.

Temporary Troop Increase for Army May Become Permanent
Mark Mazzetti. Los Angeles Times, 07 January 2005.

Reservists May Face Longer Tours of Duty
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 07 January 2005.

Army Reserve nearly 'a broken force,' chief says
Bradley Graham. Washington Post, 06 January 2005.

U.S. Struggles to Find Troops for Iraq, Afghanistan
Joseph L. Galloway. Knight-Ridder, 24 November 2004.

Army Reserve Battling an Exodus
Robert Schlesinger. Boston Globe, 23 November 2004. Posted on the Globalsecurity.org website.

Not enough troops to keep pace, study says
Vince Crawley. Navy Times, 04 October 2004.

Army to Call Up 5,000 More Ex-Soldiers in 2005
Will Dunham, Reuters, 01 October 2004.

Legions Stretched Thin: The U.S. Armyâs Manpower Crisis
Jeremy Barnicle and Leif Wellington Haase. The Century Foundation, 27 September 2004 (.pdf file).

Forget the Draft: Fix the volunteer force and they will come
Cindy Williams. Government Executive Magazine, 15 September 2004.

DOD Needs to Address Long-term Reserve Force Availability and Related Mobilization and Demobilization Issues
Government Accounting Office, GAO-04-1031, September 2004 (.pdf file). Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

The Need to Increase the Size of the Deployable Army
Michael O'Hanlon. Parameters, Autumn 2004 (.pdf file).

How to Update the Army's Reserves
Lawrence J. Korb, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2004. Posted on the Center for American Progress website.

Army "can't go to war for five years"
Michael Smith, The Independent, 25 March 2004. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website.

Defense Manpower Requirements Report, Fiscal Year 2005
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD, March 2004.

Army Chief 'Adamantly Opposes' Added End Strength
Jim Garamone. American Forces Press Service, 28 January 2004.

Keeping a strong military requires adding troops
Edwin Dorn. Austin American-Statesman, 02 January 2004.

Reserve and Guard Mobilization 2001-2004
Air National Guard Conflict 21 page.

Congress pushes for larger military
Tom Squitieri. USA Today, 12 December 2003.

Voting with Their Feet
David H. Hackworth. 24 May 2004. Posted on the Military.com website.

Iraq War Stretching US Army to Breaking Point
David T. Pyne. IntellectualConservative.com, 24 October 2003.

Unrivaled Military Feels Strains of Unending War
Thomas E. Ricks and Vernon Loeb. Washington Post, 16 February 2003.


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6. Force Protection

Hopes for Vehicle Questioned After Iraq Blast
Stephen Farrell. The New York Times, 22 January 2008.

Armored Vehicle Supply Better After Early Delays
Thom Shanker. The New York Times, 19 January 2008.

Of IEDs and MRAPs: Force Protection in Complex Irregular Operations
Andrew F. Krepinevich and Dakota L. Wood. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 17 October 2007. Posted on 18 January 2008 (.pdf file). See Force Protection website below.

Cougar MRAP Vehicles
Force Protection website.

Army Helmets to Gather Data on Blast Impact
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 03 January 2008.

JIEDDO: Research Funds Down Along with IEDs
John T. Bennett and William H. McMichael. Army Times, 20 November 2007.

Army Vehicles No. 1 Accidental Killer of GIs
Army Times, 21 October 2007.

Of IEDs and MRAPs: Force Protection in Complex Irregular Operations
Andrew F. Krepinevich and Dakota L. Wood. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 17 October 2007 (.pdf file).

Military Misses Armored-Vehicle Goal
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 22 August 2007.

Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
Andrew Feickert. Congressional Research Service, 21 August 2007 (.pdf file).

Citing Shortage of Armored Humvees, Army Has Soldiers Train on Simulators
Julie Weisberg. Raw Story, 08 August 2007.

Pentagon Finds $1.2 Billion for Mine-Fortified Vehicles
Nancy A. Youssef. McClatchy Newspapers, 18 July 2007.

Letter: Add-On Armor Too Heavy for New Vehicles
Tom Vanden Brook and Peter Eisler. USA Today, 17 July 2007.

Tool of War Trumped
David Decamp. St. Petersburg Times, 15 July 2007.

Pentagon Criticized for Armor Contracts
Richard Larner and Anne Flaherty. The Associated Press, 11 July 2007. Posted on the Truthout website.

Army Gets Big Boost in Safer Vehicles
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 02 July 2007.

IEDs: A Failure to Protect U.S. Troops?
Michael Hirsh and John Barry. Newsweek, 25 June 2007.

Explosives Make Walking Safer Than Riding in Tanks
Julian E. Barnes. Los Angeles Times, 21 June 2007.

Army and Marine Corps' Body Armor Requirements, Controls, and Other Issues
William M. Solis. Statement before the House Committee on Armed Services, 06 June 2007 (.pdf file).

Why So Few Bomb-Safe U.S. Military Trucks in Iraq?
Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor, 31 May 2007.

Are U.S. Soldiers Wearing the Best Body Armor?
Adam Ciralsky and Lisa Myers. NBC News, 20 May 2007.

Recent Losses Raise New Questions About Stryker
The Associated Press, 13 May 2007.

Humvee Doors Trapping Troops
Tom Vanden Brook. USA Today, 07 May 2007.

Soldiers Getting Lighter, Better Armor
United Press International, 25 April 2007.

Corps Restricts Non-Issued Armor Use
Christian Lowe. Military.com, 19 April 2007.

Army Fields New Body Armor Design
Christian Lowe. Military.com, 03 April 2007.

Pentagon Orders Mine-Resistant Trucks for Iraq
Dinesh Ramde. The Associated Press, 07 March 2007.

Armored Humvees Are NOT the Answer
Gary Ater. American Chronicle, 28 February 2007.

Billions Needed for New Armored Trucks
Jason Sherman. Inside Defense, 16 February 2007. Posted on Military.com.

Thousands of Army Humvees Lack Armor Upgrade
Ann Scott Tyson. Washington Post, 12 February 2007.

Better Armor Lacking for New Troops in Iraq
David Wood. The Baltimore Sun, 10 January 2007.

Relentless Toll to U.S. Troops of Roadside Bombs
Brad Knickerbocker. The Christian Science Monitor, 02 January 2007.

Lack of a Synchronized Approach Between the Marine Corps and Army Affected the Timely Production and Installation of Marine Corps Truck Armor
Report to Congressional Committees. Government Accountability Office, 22 June 2006 (.pdf file).

Safety of Older Vehicles Remains a Concern for Soldiers in Iraq
Anita Powell. Stars and Stripes, 22 June 2006.

Deadly Price Paid for Humvee Armor Used to Protect Soldiers
Russell Carollo and Mike Wagner. Dayton Daily News, 11 June 2006.

Armoured Suits Are 'Too Goofy' Say U.S. Troops
Francis Harris. The Telegraph, UK, 09 May 2006.

Humvee Deaths on The Rise Despite Armor Upgrades
Matt Kelley. USA Today, 03 May 2006.

Marines Seek Lighter Body Armor
Zachary M. Peterson. InsideDefense.com, 18 April 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Body Armor Tests Delayed
The Associated Press, 17 April 2006. Posted on Military.com.

Troops Armor Up With Bulletproof Glass
Todd Pitman. The Associated Press, 02 April 2006. Posted on TheState.com.

Army Bans Use of Privately Bought Armor
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 31 March 2006. Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

Lifesaving Knowledge, Innovation Emerge From War's Deadly Violence
Gregg Zoroya. USA Today, 27 March 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Some Shun Extra Armor
Antonio Castaneda. The Associated Press, 27 March 2006. Posted on Army Times web site.

Report:  Military Errors Held Up Armor in Iraq
Joseph Tanfani. Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 March 2006. (See report below).

Several Factors Limited the Production and Installation of Army Truck Armor During Current Wartime Operations
GAO Report to Congressional Committees, March 2006 (.pdf file).

U.S. Pours Money Into Roadside Bomb Fight
Charles J. Hanley. The Associated Press, 14 March 2006. Posted on the ABC News website.

Injured Soldier Gets Refund for Body Armor
Allison Barker. The Associated Press, 08 February 2006.

Army Demanded $700 From City Man Who Was Wounded
Eric Eyre. The Charleston Gazette, 07 February 2006.

Many Troops Don't Want Extra Body Armor
Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 06 February 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Few Soldiers Seek Body Armor Compensation
Lolita C. Baldor. The Associated Press, 26 January 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

All's Not Quiet on the Military Supply Front
Timothy L. O'Brien. The New York Times, 22 January 2006.

Pentagon Acts on Body Armor
Michael Moss. The New York Times, 21 January 2006.

Detection Devices, Armor Help Protect Humvees
Ryan Lenz and Jason Straziuso. The Associated Press, 16 January 2006. Posted on the Army Times website.

Soldiers Ordered to Shed Armor or Face Losing Benefits
Nathaniel R. Helms. Soldiers for the Truth, 14 January 2006. Posted on the Truthout website.

Soldiers May Be Reimbursed for Protective Gear
Paul Cucuzella. Army News Service, 13 January 2006.

For Lack of Body Armor, Troops Die. Why the Delay?
Editorial. USA Today, 12 January 2006.

Army to Send Body Armor Plates to Iraq
Liz Sidoti. The Associated Press, 11 January 2006. Posted on the Mercury News website.

Body Armor: Services Try to Find Right Mix of Protection, Mobility
Rick Maze. Army Times, 11 January 2006.

Army Continues Improving Body Armor
Jim Garamone. American Forces Press Service, 11 January 2006.

Mom Buys Body Armor for Son for Christmas
United Press International, 09 January 2006.

Extra Armor Could Have Saved Many Lives, Study Shows
Michael Moss. The New York Times, 06 January 2006. Posted on the Veterans for Common Sense website.

Preliminary Findings: Marine Lethal Torso Injuries
Hosted on the Commonwealth Institute website (.pdf file).

Pace Says Armor is Improving
The Associated Press, 05 January 2006. Posted on the Military.com website.

Point Blank Body Armor Inc.; Military Vests Recalled
James Bernstein. Newsday, 19 November 2005.

U.S. Army, Marines Recall 18,000 Body Armor Vests
Will Dunham. Reuters, 17 November 2005.

A Junkyard Solution to IEDs
Scott Baldauf. The Christian Science Monitor, 07 November 2005.

Prescient Insurgency Experts Want Tactical Changes
Stephen J. Hedges. Chicago Tribune, 07 June 2005.

The Marines' Flawed Body Armor
Christian Lowe. Army Times, 09 May 2005.

Many Missteps Tied to Delay in Armor for Troops in Iraq
Michael Moss. New York Times, 07 March 2005.

Marines From Iraq Sound Off About Want of Armor and Men
Michael Moss. New York Times, 25 April 2005.

Waiting for Armor: How U.S. failed GIs
Joseph Tanfani, et. al. Philadelphia Inquirer, 10 April 2005.

How Safe Are Our Troops?
Mark Thompson. Time Magazine, 20 December 2004. Posted on 13 December 2004.

Humvee Makers Dispute Rumsfeld Remarks
George Edmonson. Cox News Service, 10 December 2004. Posted on the Seattle Times website.

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