The Success of
the Shanghai Five:
Interests, Norms and Pragmatism
of the brighter spots in the area of multilateral activities in the world today
is the Shanghai Five, a multilateral forum founded by China, Russia, Kazakhstan,
Kirghizia, and Tajikistan in Shanghai in 1996.
Beginning as a low-profiled international cooperation mechanism with a
modest agenda six years ago, the Shanghai Five has grown into an increasingly
influential international forum with an ambitious program for multilateral
cooperation. Despite its various
problems and shortcomings, it has made much progress over the years and appears
to be promising more in the days to come. Precisely
because of its success, several other countries in Central and South Asia have
expressed interest in its membership in recent years.
did the Shanghai Five start? How
has it evolved over time? What are
the underlying factors for its development?
What useful lessons can one learn from this experience for multilateral
collaboration? This paper
represents a modest attempt to address these questions.
other things, this paper argues that the success of the Shanghai Five is
possible because (1) they have focused their attention on areas that promote
mutual interests; (2) the countries involved share similar international norms
of behavior; and (3) they have taken a gradualist approach which allows time to
build up trust and coordination among themselves.
The Evolution of the Shanghai Five
first round of the Shanghai Five took place on April 26, 1996 when the heads of
state of China and four other former Soviet states: Russia, Kazakhstan,
Kirghizia and Tajikistan met in Shanghai to discuss security confidence-building
measures in the border areas between them.
China and these countries share borders of over 7,000 kilometers in
length. For historical reasons,
there were quite a few areas of disputes along their borders.
During the cold war when Sino-Soviet relations were tense, the two
countries stationed large and heavily armed troops in the border areas.
They even had military clashes in some areas of contention such as the
Zhenbao Island. The relaxation of
relations between China and the Soviet Union in mid-1980s helped reduce the
tensions along the border and subsequent border talks made progress in
resolution of the border problems. However,
by time of the breakup of the Soviet Union, some border problems remained and
border uncertainty presented potential threat to the relations between China and
some of the new countries founded on the former Soviet Union sharing borders
with China. It was against this
background that China and these countries began to try to deal with the border
problems with a hope to put their relationship on a peaceful course. Their efforts eventually led to the holding of the Shanghai
summit in 1996.
the five heads of states first met in Shanghai in 1996, their agenda was a
limited one, that is, to develop some security confidence building measures in
the border areas before the final resolution of the border problems.
For this purpose, the meeting turned out to be a success.
After frank and friendly discussion among the heads of the five
countries, they agreed among other things that they would take serious concrete
measures to enhance security in the border areas between them.
Specifically, they agreed that their military forces not to engage in any
offensive activities within the border areas; that they would not conduct
military exercises against each other; that they would limit the scale, level
and frequency of military exercises in the border areas; that they would inform
each other about their respective major military activities in the areas within
one hundred kilometers from the borders; that they would invite each other to
observe their planned military exercises; that they would prevent dangerous
military activities in the border areas; and that they would enhance friendly
exchanges between the military forces and border patrol forces along the border
The agreement helped prevent potential conflicts along the borders between the
five countries and introduce security and stability in the relationship between
China and these countries. Following
the summit, China and Kyrgyzstan stepped up efforts to resolve their border
problems and signed an important border agreement in July 1996.
second summit of the Shanghai Five was held in Moscow on April 24, 1997.
On the basis of their last agreement, the five heads of state concluded
an agreement on mutual reduction of military forces in the border areas.
Through this agreement, China and the other four countries committed
themselves to cutting their military forces in the border areas down to the
lowest level appropriate to relations between friendly neighbors and making
their military deployment defensive in nature.
They agreed on non-use of force, not to threaten to use force against
each other, and not to seek unilateral military superiority. They also agreed that they would reduce and limit the number
of personnel and various principal weapons of the military forces and border
patrols in the areas one hundred kilometers from the border and that they would
exchange of information about military forces deployed along the border areas
and etc. [ii]
The agreement was conducive to disarmament in the areas along the borders
between China and the other four countries.
third summit of the Shanghai Five was held on July 3, 1998 in Almaty of
Kazakhstan. This summit put its
focus on promotion of peace and stability of the region and economic cooperation
between the five member countries. In
the communiqué issued at the close of the summit, the five countries expressed
their agreement on mutual respect for national sovereign and territorial
integrity, equality and mutual benefits, and nonintervention in each other’s
internal affairs as the basic principles for handing international relations.
They also affirmed the principle that inter-state differences should be
resolved through peaceful consultation. They
agreed to fight against various forms of national separatist and religious
extremist activities, terrorist operations, weapon smuggling, and drug
trafficking. They agreed that they
would intensify economic relations between the five countries in the spirit of
mutual benefits and pragmatism. They
expressed their desire to join international efforts to stop nuclear arms race
in South Asia and to defend the international non-proliferation regimes.[iii]
summit also represented a historical transition of the Shanghai Five in two
important ways. First, the issues
under discussion among the five countries began to expand into non-military
areas such as promoting economic cooperation, cooperation against religious
extremist activities and transnational crimes, and advocating a set of
principles for managing international relations etc.
Second, unlike the situation in the first two summits in which discussion
was conducted with China on one side and the other four countries on the other,
from this summit on, the discussion among the five states became truly
third summit was also accompanied by further progress in the border talks
between the Shanghai Five countries. Following
the summit, China and Kazakhstan accelerated their border talks and concluded
another border agreement on the basis of the previous one concluded in April
1994. The new border agreement
represented a major step forward toward the final resolution of the border
problems between the two countries.[iv]
fourth summit was held in Bishkek of Kirghizia on August 24, 1999.
In the statement issued in the wake of the summit, the five countries
expressed their satisfaction with the previous achievements accomplished through
cooperation among the five countries since 1996.
They also expressed their conviction that establishment of various
mechanisms for concrete cooperation in areas of common interests would
facilitate stability, peace, development, and prosperity of the region.
They indicated their willingness to hold irregular summit meetings and
constant contacts and consultation between officials of various departments in
their governments at various levels. They
restated their firm opposition to national separatism and religious extremism.
They also announced that they would enhance cooperation in their efforts
to combat international terrorism, drug trafficking and other transnational
criminal activities. Once again the
leaders of the five countries reaffirmed their commitment not to tolerate any
attempt to use their territories to engage in activities that jeopardize the
sovereignty, security and social stability of other member countries. Once again, leaders of the five countries underscored the
importance of promoting economic and trade cooperation on the basis of equality
and mutual benefits. They expressed
willingness to continue to encourage cooperation on a bilateral basis and
meanwhile to seek ways to promote multilateral cooperation.[v]
In the wake of the summit, China and Kyrgyzstan concluded a supplementary
border agreement in August on the basis of their 1996 border agreement. With
this agreement, they finally settled problems along the approximately 1,000
kilometer long border between them.[vi]
fifth summit was held in Dushanbe of Tajikistan, July 5, 2000.
In the statement issued following the summit, the five countries restated
that they hoped that Central Asia would become a region of peace, friendly
neighborhood, stability, and international cooperation on the basis of equality. They expressed their opposition to conflicts, threats and
outside intervention that would complicate the region’s situation.
For these reasons, they were determined to deepen their cooperation in
politics, diplomacy, economic and trade relations, military matters, military
technologies, and other spheres so as to enhance regional security and
stability. They considered that
existing consultation between their defense ministers and defense institutions
were appropriate for deepening mutual trust and friendly cooperation and
conducive to the maintenance of peace and stability in the region.
They reaffirmed their determination to combat national separatism,
international terrorism, religious extremism, weapon smuggling, drug
trafficking, and illicit migration, which constitute the major threats to
regional security, peace and development. They
called for formulation of a multilateral cooperation guideline, conclusion of
necessary multilateral treaties and agreements, regularly holding meetings
between officials in charge of law enforcement, border patrol, customs, and
security, and jointly conducting anti-terrorist and anti-violent activities
exercises when necessary. They
vowed to defend the goals and principles of the UN Charter.
They reiterated that countries have rights to choose the paths of
political, economic and social development in the light their respective
national conditions. They repeated
their intention to adhere to the principles of respect for human rights and also
their opposition to international intervention in domestic affairs in the name
of humanitarian concerns or protection of human rights.
They expressed their support for China’s efforts for national
reunification and Russia’s position on the Chechen question.
They stressed the necessity to defend and strictly observe the 1972 ABM
treaty unconditionally and their opposition to the development of TMD including
efforts to include Taiwan into the TMD in any form.
They voiced their support for the NPT (non-proliferation treaty). They expressed deep concern about the political development
in Afghanistan and called all parties involved to start dialogue as soon as
possible. They also expressed their
intention to promote economic and trade relations between them on the basis of
equality and mutual benefits. They
promised to enhance cooperation in promoting cultural exchanges, energy
exploration, environmental protection, etc.
Finally, they agreed to hold annual foreign ministers’ meetings and
establish council of national coordinators to facilitate cooperation.[vii]
this summit, China and Tajikistan successfully concluded an agreement that
permanently settles the remaining problems along their common borders.[viii]
retrospect, one finds that the Shanghai Five has experienced a step by step
development from an institution of bilateral nature to one of a multilateral
character, from one focused on security questions to one dealing a broad range
of questions, and from one with a limited agenda into one with a comprehensive
program. Such a development has far-reaching significance for the development of
the region as well as the Shanghai Five member states.
II. The Achievements of the
its limitations and problems, by whatever standards, the Shanghai Five has made
some impressive achievements. To begin with, through introducing confidence
building mechanisms and initiating disarmament in the areas along the borders
between the five countries, the Shanghai Five successfully managed to avoid the
perennial problem of security dilemma in international relations and to enhance
security among member countries. This has allowed them to concentrate their time
and limited resources on other pressing issues such as maintaining political
stability and promoting economic development at home. All the member countries
have benefited from this process.
the Shanghai Five has helped resolve the border problems between China and the
other four countries. Border problems are usually the most difficult to resolve
in international relations. In history, failure to resolve border problems often
leads to military confrontation and even war, between countries. During the cold
war, this also happened to China and the Soviet Union. For a few years, the two
countries even engaged in a number of bloody border clashes during the late
1960s and early 1970s. During the mid-1980s, as relations between the two
countries improved, they began to engage in serious border talks. However, by
the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the border problems remained
largely unsettled. Some people in China and the Central Asian countries did not
want to make any compromise and such a problem posed a potential threat to the
security of all the concerned countries. Against this background, China and the
other former Soviet states continued border negotiations with a view to settle
the border problems permanently. In this respect, the Shanghai Five helped
create a good atmosphere for the border talks to proceed. Through serious
negotiations, China and the other four former Soviet states successfully fixed
their borders over time. For the first time in history, their 7,000 kilometer
long borders are clearly demarcated with the exception of a few small areas
along the Sino-Russian border. This is an incredible achievement in the light of
the complexity of the problems and short period of time it took to solve them.
With the border problems behind them, the prospect for these countries to
cooperate with one another in the future became brighter.
the Shanghai Five has helped cultivate good will as well as trust among the
member countries. The mechanism appears to have given the member countries good
reason to engage in further cooperation. The mood of the summit was in general
positive and friendly. The leaders of the five countries appeared to be getting
along as well. All member countries have shown due respect for each other. They
have concentrated on working at the problems that they felt necessary and
feasible to resolve in a pragmatic and constructive manner. They may have
differences. However, they have taken sufficient care not to let such
differences hamper their cooperation. The agreements are effectively
implemented. No complaints have been raised about it. Domestic support appears
to be ample. Such an atmosphere helped the member countries to deal with
problems between them effectively and constructively. It was against this
background that China and the other four countries have been able to conclude a
series of border agreements.
addition, the Shanghai Five has helped combat and at least discourage attempts
to spread religious fundamentalism in the region. Since the end of the cold war,
Islamic extremists have been more and more aggressive. Among other things, they
have actively promoted its influence in central Asia, which has a large Muslim
population. All of the Shanghai Five member countries have been affected by this
development. As Islamic fundamentalism increases its influence, it has posed a
serious challenge to the established political authority of the newly
independent former Soviet states. Because of its geographic proximity to
Afghanistan, a center of Islamic fundamentalism, Tajikistan has been involved in
civil conflicts and war.[ix]
Other countries including China are also victims of the religious extremist
activities.[x] Deterrence of and fighting
against religious fundamentalism in Central Asia therefore has become
increasingly important for all Central Asian countries. In this regard, the
Shanghai Five has helped the member countries to offer support to each other and
coordinate their efforts to combat religious extremism. Through various joint
public announcements at the Shanghai Five summits, the Shanghai Five countries
have demonstrated their determination to cooperate in combating international
religious extremism. Through some concrete measures of cooperation such as
holding joint military exercises to combat terrorist activities, they have
managed to demonstrate to the world that they meant business.[xi]
These and other efforts the Shanghai Five has undertaken are helpful to deter
the expansionist activities of the Islamic fundamentalism and to facilitate the
protection of the interests of the concerned countries.
the Shanghai Five has created a multilateral mechanism through which member
countries can effectively communicate with each other about their concerns and
coordinate their various activities. Since the third round, the Shanghai Five
became a genuine multilateral mechanism. It has clarified its objectives. It has
identified a number of principles as the norms for international conduct between
them. It has concluded some binding agreements between them on
confidence-building measures, on disarmament, and on cooperation on other
issues. It has established a working group to supervise implementation of the
agreements. It has also called for formulation of a multilateral guideline for
cooperation between them. Finally it has led to increasing contacts between
officials from different departments at various levels of their governments,
including regular meetings of the defense ministers, of law enforcement
officers, and of foreign ministers. If the current trend continues, the Shanghai
Five appears to have much promise to become a mature and effective multilateral
instrument serving the interests of the member states.
the complexity and scale of the problems confronting these countries, the
progress the Shanghai Five has made in promoting peace and stability in the
region and in enhancing cooperation between the five countries is by any measure
very impressive. Remember that the four of the Shanghai Five countries just
became independent and have been in the process in reconstructing their separate
national identities. Remember that when the Shanghai Five first started, there
were many porous and undefined borders between them, and between them and China.
Remember that these countries have been confronted with complex and thorny
ethnic problems throughout the years.[xii]
Remember also that a significant portion of the population in some of them is
highly susceptible to the influence of Islamic fundamentalism. Despite all this,
the Shanghai Five has made the progress as discussed in the previous passages.
The Secret of Success: Interests, Norms and Pragmatism
the impressive accomplishments of the Shanghai Five, what, then, is the secret
of its success? A close analysis appears to suggest that among other things
three factors have played a crucial role. These are respectively: (1) shared
interests, (2) shared norms for international conduct, and (3) a gradualist
approach in dealing with the problems they confront.
interests have formed a basis for cooperation among the Shanghai Five countries.
These include security, domestic political stability, economic development, and
international prestige. When the Shanghai Five first began, all the five
countries felt the urgency as well as necessity to reduce uncertainty along the
border areas resulting from the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Since
territorial problems have great potential of invoking strong nationalist
feelings and generating national conflicts, they posed potential threats to
security of the member countries and of the region. It was therefore in the
interest of all member countries to deal with this problem and to deal with them
immediately. Accordingly it was no surprise that the Shanghai Five began with
discussion on measures to enhance their border security. Shared interest in this
regard eventually contributed to conclusion of the agreements on
confidence-building measures and disarmament along the borders of these
countries. Shared interests in security also helped to encourage the member
countries to step up efforts in border negotiations and eventually contributed
to the conclusion of the border agreements.
of the Shanghai Five with their domestic political stability also encouraged
them to seek for an early resolution of the border problem and develop a
peaceful environment along their borders. For its part, China had been deeply
involved in historical transitions, namely modernization, systemic transition
(from a central planned economy to a market economy), and leadership transition
(from a generation of charismatic leaders to one of techno-bureaucrats).
Furthermore, Islamic fundamentalism was posing a serious challenge to China’s
northwest especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region as religious extremists
clamoring for establishment of a so-called “East Turkestan."[xiii]
In the meantime, the Taiwan authorities were pressing for independence leading
to military tension in the Taiwan Strait. On top of all this, the US and some
other western countries had been putting pressures on China to accept their
values and priorities in governing China.[xiv]
These challenges had posed serious strains on China’s political system. Under
the circumstances, among other things, China had an increasing stake in securing
stability along its northwest border and therefore was eager to improve
relations with its neighbors including the other Shanghai Five countries. And to
realize this, it was necessary to resolve the border problems with those
Russia also faced many domestic problems. They too wanted to seek for a secure
and peaceful international environment so as to concentrate their attention and
efforts to deal with these problems. Following its unsuccessful reforms,
Russia’s economy was in deep trouble. In part because of this, the previous
euphoria about its democratization was replaced by pervasive frustration and
pessimism. In the meantime, Russian-American relations ran sour. Western
countries especially the US became increasingly critical of the Russian
management of international aid and Russia’s human rights practice. They also
openly condemned Russian handling of the Chenchen question. On top of this, NATO
tried to expand eastward. Under the circumstances, the Russian Government faced
serious problems in managing economic development and political stability. It
badly needed to develop good relations with China and other neighboring
countries to ward off Western pressures and also to concentrate its attention on
solving its domestic problems. The Shanghai Five provided a good vehicle for
Russia to attain these objectives.
their part, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia and Tajikistan also had a difficult time at
home. Their economies had also experienced difficulties. In addition, these
countries just became independent and were involved in the state-building
process. National identity was weak. Ethnic diversity made political development
in these countries extremely complicated and delicate.[xv]
To make things worse, Islamic fundamentalism was on the rise in Central Asia.
Religious extremists challenged the secular political authorities in these
countries both through conducting subversive activities among the Islamic ethnic
population within these countries and through armed invasion from the outside.[xvi]
Under the circumstances, these countries wanted to external security so as to
concentrate their energy and attention to deal with domestic challenges. They
also hoped to obtain support from China and Russia in this regard. Accordingly,
they took the Shanghai Five quite seriously and their efforts contributed to the
positive achievements of the Shanghai Five over the years.
the international level, all of the Shanghai Five countries had an interest to
boost their international prestige. By the time the Shanghai Five began, China
was still suffering from the impact of the Tiananmen Incident. The West led by
the US continued to view China in a very negative light. The new Clinton
Administration took a heavy-handed approach on the China question. As China’s
economic growth resumed, many people in the world began to see China as a threat
or at least a potential threat. Under the circumstances, China needed to do
something to reconstruct its international image. Among other things, it saw the
Shanghai Five as a fine instrument to demonstrate to the rest of the world that
China is a benign and responsible international power instead of a threat to
international peace and stability.
its own reasons, Russia too needed to boost its international image. Since the
late 1980s, the economy of the Soviet Union steadily declined. Years of economic
decline not only affected the life of an average Russian but also the
country’s comprehensive national capabilities. The dissolution of the Soviet
Union dealt a further blow to the former Soviet states including Russia.
Continuing economic problems made it increasingly difficult for Russia to
maintain its influence in the CIS countries. Within a fairly short period of
time, Russia’s international status dropped down sharply. Many people in the
west began to dismiss Russia as a third-world country except on question of
military security. This is too much for the Russian elite to take. Under
circumstances, Russia felt necessary to do something to sustain its great power
status. The Shanghai Five appeared to offer one opportunity for Russia to do so.
for the other three Shanghai Five countries, they wanted international
recognition and attention. Geographically located in Central Asia and
politically newly independent, these countries needed international recognition
and attention, both to have their voices heard and attract foreign investment to
help develop their economy. They also needed international support in their
efforts to reduce their dependence on Russia and to meet the challenge of
Islamic fundamentalism. In their efforts to attain these objectives, they found
Shanghai Five useful.
part because the Shanghai Five countries are weak states and they have different
domestic priorities from those of the stronger states, they are vulnerable to
external intervention. This has contributed to their opposition to international
intervention and the development of shared norms of proper international
conduct. The latter include the principles of respect for the sovereignty and
territorial integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states,
non-interference in the international affairs of other states, equality and
mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. In the light of these principles, they
support the authority of the United Nations and the UN Charter. They endorse the
international nonproliferation regime. They endorse the ABM Treaty concluded
between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1972 and oppose efforts by
some countries to revise or abolish it. They vow to fight international
terrorists…. These shared norms of international conduct have facilitated
cooperation between the Shanghai Five countries.
the shared interests and shared norms have provided strong motivation for
cooperation between the Shanghai Five countries, the pragmatic and incremental
approach they have adhered to in promoting cooperation has also contributed to
the success of the Shanghai Five. At the beginning, the member countries focused
on one limited issue, that is, developing confidence-building measures. Then, as
they gained trust in each other and confidence in what they could accomplish,
they turned their attention to disarmament along the border areas. After
resolving the security problems between them along the borders, they turned
their attention to the threat of religious fundamentalism and worked together to
fight against it. As their cooperation deepened, they stepped up efforts to
cooperate in other areas especially economic cooperation. Through consultation
and coordination, they reached agreements on an increasing number of issues.
They endorsed the five principles of peaceful coexistence; they expressed their
opposition to international interference in domestic affairs of sovereign
states; they vowed to fight international terrorism/religious fundamentalism;
they denounced the efforts to build the NMD; and they deplored the nuclear arms
race in South Asia; they called for promotion of political, economic, social,
and cultural contacts between them; and they has established various mechanisms
such as annual meetings of their defense ministers, annual meetings of their
foreign ministers, working group to monitor and supervise the implementation of
previous agreements between them etc.
pragmatic and incremental approach the Shanghai Five has taken is important for
its success because its initial objectives were limited and fairly easy to
obtain. And once they were accomplished, it helped develop a sense of trust and
confidence among the Shanghai Five countries. And this trust and confidence
became an important basis for them to further their cooperation. That is to say
that by limiting their initial objectives, the Shanghai Five countries avoided a
situation in which they would begin with ambitious goals and high expectations
but only to become frustrated and discontent with one another when they failed
to attain the goals and meet the expectations.
IV. Tentative conclusion
In conclusion, the Shanghai Five has accomplished much within a relatively short period of time. It has a promising regional multilateral mechanism for cooperation despite its innate problems. Shared interests, shared norms of international conduct and a pragmatic and gradualist approach have underlined its success so far.
[i] Renmin Ribao Commentator, “Jushi shumu de xieding” (The agreement that holds the world’s attention), Renmin Ribao, April 27, 1996, p.1.
[ii] Renmin Ribao, April 25, 1997, p.1.
[iii] Renmin Ribao Editorial, “Jiaqing mulin youhao, cujin heping fazhan: relie zhuhe jiangzemin zhuxi alamutu zhixing yuanman chenggong” (Enahnce neighborly friendship, promote peace and development: warm congratulations on President Jiang Zemin’s successful trip to Alamutu), Renmin Ribao, July 5, 1998, p.1.
[iv] Renmin Ribao, July 5, 1998, p.1.
[v] Renmin Ribao, August 26, 1999, p.1.
[vi] Renmin Ribao, December 18, 2000, p.7.
[vii] Xinhua News Agency, July 5, 2000.
[viii] Guanming Ribao (Guangming daily), July 6, 2000.
[ix] “Zhongya jiaofei he qi nan” (Why it is so difficult to get rid of the bandits in Central Asia?), Zhongguo Qingnian Bao (China youth daily), August 28, 2000.
[x] Just as Igor Sergeyev, the Russian defence minister, said at the recent meeting between defense ministers of the Shanghai Five: "Today the Central Asian republics are located on the frontline of the fight with the forces of international terrorism and religious extremism." Crescent International, May 1-15, 2000.
[xi] “Zhongya fan kongbu jue bu shouruan” (Central Asia takes a touch approach against terrorism), Huanqiu Shibao (Globe Times), September 1, 2000.
[xii] As P. Stobdan, Research Fellow of IDSA, puts it: “The Uzbeks are everywhere and every other ethnic group lives in Uzbekistan. There are more Tajiks in Afghanistan than in Tajikistan. Besides the Tajik's' core centres are located in Uzbekistan. There are more Pushtuns in Pakistan than in Afghanistan. Eighty percent of Central Asian national boundaries are said to have been drawn arbitrarily, cutting across ethnic enclaves. The destabilisation process is further exacerbated by intra-tribal confrontations which are likely to be more serious than the inter-tribal and inter-regional rifts. Tajikistan provides a clear example, where clans from distinct regions become enemies and make alliances in the pursuit of power.” P. Stobdan, “Central Asia in Geo-Political Transition”.
[xiii] Wang Jianping, Wu Yungui & Li Xinghua, Dangdai zhongya yisilanjiao jiqi yu waijie de lianxi (Contemporary connections between Islamic religion in Central Asia and the outside world) (Beijing: Institute of World Religion of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2000), pp.155-164.
[xiv] Qingguo Jia,“Frustrations and Hopes: Chinese Perceptions of the Engagement Policy Debate in the US”, Journal of Contemporary China, to be published in the forthcoming issue.
[xv] Wang Jianping et al, op.cit., pp.15-16.
[xvi] Ibid., pp.56-57.